S-3ASR
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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 15, 2024

Registration No. 333-     

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

Form S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

Extra Space Storage Inc.

Extra Space Storage LP

Guarantor Registrants (See below)

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Maryland (Extra Space Storage Inc.)

Delaware (Extra Space Storage LP)

 

20-1076777 (Extra Space Storage Inc.)

20-1368986 (Extra Space Storage LP)

(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  (I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

2795 East Cottonwood Parkway, Suite 300

Salt Lake City, Utah 84121

(801) 365-4600

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

 

Joseph D. Margolis

Chief Executive Officer

Extra Space Storage Inc.

2795 East Cottonwood Parkway, Suite 300

Salt Lake City, Utah 84121

(801) 365-4600

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

Copy to:

Craig M. Garner, Esq.

Anthony A. Gostanian, Esq.

Latham & Watkins LLP

12670 High Bluff Drive

San Diego, California 92130

(858) 523-5400

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement.

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box. ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box. ☒

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☒

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Extra Space Storage Inc.

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer      Smaller reporting company  
     Emerging growth company  

Extra Space Storage LP

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer      Smaller reporting company  
     Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.

 

Extra Space Storage Inc.

    

Extra Space Storage LP

    


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GUARANTOR REGISTRANTS (1)

 

Exact name of guarantor as
specified in its charter
  

State or other
jurisdiction of

incorporation or
organization

    

I.R.S. Employer

Identification
Number

 

ESS Holdings Business Trust I

     Massachusetts        20-1366607  

ESS Holdings Business Trust II

     Massachusetts        20-1366676  

 

(1)

The address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of each of the Guarantor Registrants’ principal executive offices is 2795 East Cottonwood Parkway, Suite 300, Salt Lake City, Utah 84121, telephone (801) 365-4600. The name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of the agent for service for each Guarantor Registrant is Joseph D. Margolis, Extra Space Storage Inc., 2795 East Cottonwood Parkway, Suite 300, Salt Lake City, Utah 84121, telephone (801) 365-4600.

 

 

 


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EXPLANATORY NOTE

This registration statement contains two prospectuses:

 

   

a base prospectus which covers the offering, issuance and sale by the registrants of common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares, warrants, rights, units, debt securities and guarantees of debt securities, in each case from time to time in one or more offerings;

 

   

an equity distribution agreement prospectus supplement covering the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $800.0 million of our common stock that may be issued and sold under an equity distribution agreement with BMO Capital Markets Corp., BofA Securities, Inc., Citigroup Global Markets Inc., Jefferies LLC, J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, Regions Securities LLC, TD Securities (USA) LLC, Truist Securities, Inc. and Wells Fargo Securities, LLC, each as sales agent.

The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus. The specific terms of the securities to be issued and sold under the equity distribution agreement are specified in the equity distribution agreement prospectus supplement that immediately follows the base prospectus.


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PROSPECTUS

 

 

LOGO

Extra Space Storage Inc.

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Depositary Shares

Warrants

Rights

Units

Guarantees of Debt Securities

 

 

Extra Space Storage LP

Debt Securities

 

 

We may offer and sell the securities identified above from time to time in one or more offerings. Extra Space Storage LP may offer from time to time debt securities in one or more series. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities.

Each time we offer and sell securities, we will provide a supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the offering and the amounts, prices and terms of the securities. The supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering, and may include limitations on actual or constructive ownership and restrictions on transfer of the securities, in each case as may be appropriate to preserve the status of Extra Space Storage Inc. as a real estate investment trust (“REIT”) for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The applicable prospectus supplement may also contain information, where applicable, about certain U.S. federal income tax consequences relating to, and any listing on a securities exchange of, the securities covered by such prospectus supplement. You should carefully read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement before you invest in any of our securities.

We or Extra Space Storage LP may offer and sell the securities described in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement to or through one or more underwriters, dealers and agents, or directly to purchasers, or through a combination of these methods. In addition, the selling security holders may offer and sell shares of our common stock from time to time, together or separately. If any underwriters, dealers or agents are involved in the sale of any of the securities, their names and any applicable purchase price, fee, commission or discount arrangement between or among them will be set forth, or will be calculable from the information set forth, in the applicable prospectus supplement. See the sections of this prospectus entitled “About This Prospectus” and “Plan of Distribution” for more information. No securities may be sold without delivery of this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of such securities.

INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES INVOLVES RISKS. SEE THE “RISK FACTORS” ON PAGE 3 OF THIS PROSPECTUS AND ANY SIMILAR SECTION CONTAINED IN THE APPLICABLE PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT CONCERNING FACTORS YOU SHOULD CONSIDER BEFORE INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES.

Our common stock currently trades on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “EXR.” On April 12, 2024, the last reported sales price of our common stock on the NYSE was $140.69 per share.

 

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

The date of this prospectus is April 15, 2024


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

Extra Space Storage

     1  

Risk Factors

     3  

Guarantor Disclosures

     3  

About This Prospectus

     3  

Where You Can Find More Information

     4  

Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference

     4  

Forward-Looking Statements

     6  

Use of Proceeds

     8  

Description of Common Stock

     9  

Description of Preferred Stock

     11  

Description of Depositary Shares

     14  

Description of Warrants

     17  

Description of Rights

     19  

Description of Units

     20  

Description of Debt Securities and Guarantees

     21  

Global Securities

     30  

Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer

     34  

Description of the Partnership Agreement of Extra Space Storage LP

     38  

Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws

     43  

U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences

     49  

Selling Security Holders

     77  

Plan of Distribution

     78  

Legal Matters

     79  

Experts

     79  

Unless the context indicates otherwise, references in this prospectus to “Extra Space Storage Inc.,” “we,” “our,” “us” and “our company” refer to Extra Space Storage Inc., a Maryland corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries, including Extra Space Storage LP, except in statements regarding qualification as a REIT, in which case such terms refer solely to Extra Space Storage Inc. Extra Space Storage LP is a Delaware limited partnership of which we are the indirect general partner and to which we refer in this prospectus as our operating partnership. References to “OP units” include common operating partnership units and preferred operating partnership units of Extra Space Storage LP. References in this prospectus to the “Guarantors” refer to our wholly-owned subsidiaries that are listed as guarantor registrants in the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus, in an accompanying prospectus supplement or incorporated by reference herein or therein. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information or make any representation that is different. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement do not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the registered securities to which they relate, and this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy securities in any jurisdiction where, or to any person to whom, it is unlawful to make such an offer or solicitation. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement is correct on any date after the respective dates of the prospectus and such prospectus supplement or supplements, as applicable, even though this prospectus and such prospectus supplement or supplements are delivered or shares are sold pursuant to the prospectus and such prospectus supplement or supplements at a later date. Since the respective dates of the prospectus contained in this registration statement and any accompanying prospectus supplement, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed. We may only use this prospectus to sell the securities if it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

 

 

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EXTRA SPACE STORAGE

We are a fully integrated, self-administered and self-managed REIT formed as a Maryland corporation on April 30, 2004, to own, operate, manage, acquire, develop and redevelop self-storage properties (“stores”). We closed our initial public offering on August 17, 2004. We were formed to continue the business of Extra Space Storage LLC and its subsidiaries, which had engaged in the self-storage business since 1977.

Substantially all of our business is conducted through Extra Space Storage LP (the “Operating Partnership”). Our primary assets are general partner and limited partner interests in the Operating Partnership. This structure is commonly referred to as an umbrella partnership REIT (“UPREIT”). We have elected to be taxed as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”). To the extent we continue to qualify as a REIT we will not be subject to U.S. federal tax, with certain exceptions, on our REIT taxable income that is distributed to our stockholders.

Our principal offices are located at 2795 East Cottonwood Parkway, Suite 300, Salt Lake City, Utah 84121, telephone number (801) 365-4600.

Our internet address is www.extraspace.com. We file our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to those reports with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). You may obtain copies of these documents by visiting the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. In addition, as soon as reasonably practicable after such materials are furnished to the SEC, we make copies of these documents available to the public free of charge through the Investor Relations section of our website. The information included on our website is not, and should not be considered, a part of this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement.

We operate in two distinct segments: (1) self-storage operations; and (2) tenant reinsurance. Our self-storage operations activities include rental operations of wholly-owned stores. Tenant reinsurance activities include the reinsurance of risks relating to the loss of goods stored by tenants in our stores.

We own, operate, manage, provide lending to, acquire, develop and redevelop stores. We operate and manage our business by evaluating the operating performance of the properties for our entire portfolio which includes wholly-owned stores, stores in which we have a partial ownership interest and managed stores. Stores offer month-to-month rental of storage space for personal or business use.

As of December 31, 2023, we owned and/or operated 3,714 stores in 42 states, and Washington, D.C., comprising approximately 283 million square feet of net rentable space in approximately 2.6 million units.

Our tenant reinsurance activities include the reinsurance of risks relating to the loss of goods stored by tenants in our stores. Our customers have the option of purchasing insurance from a non-affiliated insurance company to cover certain losses to their goods stored at our facilities, as well as those we manage for third parties. A wholly-owned, consolidated subsidiary fully reinsures such policies and thereby assumes all risk of losses under these policies and receives reinsurance premiums substantially equal to the premiums collected from our tenants, from the non-affiliated insurance company.

As of December 31, 2023, we managed 1,337 stores for third party owners. Our management business enables us to generate increased revenues through management fees as well as expand our geographic footprint, data sophistication and scale with little capital investment. We believe this expanded footprint enables us to reduce our operating costs through economies of scale. In addition, our management business is a potential future acquisition pipeline.

We have a bridge lending program, under which we provide financing to third party self-storage owners for operating properties that we manage. This program helps us increase our management business, create additional

 

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potential future acquisition opportunities, and strengthen our relationships with partners, all while generating interest and fee income. We generally originate mortgage loans and mezzanine loans, with the intent to sell a portion of the mortgage loans to third parties, while retaining our interests in the mezzanine loans. As of December 31, 2023, the total balance of bridge loans receivable was $594.7 million.

We have made investments in preferred stock of other self-storage companies. These investments benefit us by providing dividend income, increasing our management business, and creating additional potential future acquisition opportunities through relationships with the companies in which we invest.

Our primary business objectives are to maximize cash flow available for distribution to our stockholders and to achieve sustainable long-term growth in cash flow per share in order to maximize long-term stockholder value both at acceptable levels of risk. We continue to evaluate a range of growth initiatives and opportunities.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investment in any securities offered pursuant to this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement involves risks. You should carefully consider the risk factors incorporated by reference to our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or Current Reports on Form 8-K, and all other information contained or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and the risk factors and other information contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectus before acquiring any of such securities. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities. Please also refer to the section below entitled “Forward-Looking Statements.”

GUARANTOR DISCLOSURES

Extra Space Storage Inc. and the Guarantors may guarantee debt securities of the Operating Partnership as described in “Description of Debt Securities and Related Guarantees.” Any such guarantees by Extra Space Storage Inc. and the Guarantors will be full, irrevocable, unconditional and absolute joint and several guarantees to the holders of each series of such outstanding guaranteed debt securities. Extra Space Storage Inc. owns all of its assets and conducts all of its operations through the Operating Partnership and the Operating Partnership is consolidated into Extra Space Storage Inc.’s financial statements.

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC as a “well-known seasoned issuer” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), using a “shelf” registration process. By using a shelf registration statement, we may sell common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares, warrants, rights and units, and the Operating Partnership may sell debt securities (including related guarantees by Extra Space Storage Inc. and the Guarantors), in each case in one or more offerings from time to time. In addition, selling security holders to be named in a prospectus supplement may sell certain of our securities from time to time. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we, the Operating Partnership or any selling security holder may offer. Each time we, the Operating Partnership or any selling security holder sells securities, we, the Operating Partnership or the selling security holder will provide a prospectus supplement containing specific information about the terms of the applicable offering. Such prospectus supplement may add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. If there is any inconsistency between the information in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, you should rely on the prospectus supplement. You should read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement together with additional information described below under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” before you decide whether to invest in our securities.

We or the Operating Partnership may offer and sell the securities described in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement to or through one or more underwriters, dealers and agents, or directly to purchasers, or through a combination of these methods. In addition, the selling security holders may offer and sell shares of our common stock from time to time, together or separately. If any underwriters, dealers or agents are involved in the sale of any of the securities, their names and any applicable purchase price, fee, commission or discount arrangement between or among them will be set forth, or will be calculable from the information set forth, in the applicable prospectus supplement. See the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” for more information on this topic. No securities may be sold without delivery of this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of such securities.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information about issuers, such as us, who file electronically with the SEC. The address of the SEC’s website is http://www.sec.gov. You can also inspect reports and other information we file at the offices of the NYSE, 20 Broad Street, New York, New York 10005. In addition, we maintain a website that contains information about us at www.extraspace.com. The information included on our website is not, and should not be considered, a part of this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement.

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3, of which this prospectus is a part, including exhibits, schedules and amendments filed with, or incorporated by reference in, this registration statement, under the Securities Act with respect to the securities registered hereby. This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement do not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and exhibits and schedules to the registration statement. For further information with respect to our company and the securities registered hereby, reference is made to the registration statement, including the exhibits to the registration statement. Statements contained in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement as to the contents of any contract or other document referred to in, or incorporated by reference in, this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement are not necessarily complete and, where that contract is an exhibit to the registration statement, each statement is qualified in all respects by the exhibit to which the reference relates.

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring to those documents. The information incorporated by reference herein is an important part of this prospectus. The incorporated documents contain significant information about us, our business and our finances. Any information contained in this prospectus or in any document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus will be deemed to have been modified or superseded to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus, in any other document we subsequently file with the SEC that also is incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus or in any applicable prospectus supplement modifies or supersedes the original statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to be a part of this prospectus. We incorporate by reference the following documents we filed with the SEC (excluding any portions of such documents that are deemed “furnished” to the SEC pursuant to applicable rules and regulations):

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023, filed with the SEC on February 29, 2024;

 

   

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on June 12, 2023 (excluding Exhibits 99.2 and 99.3 thereto), August  18, 2023, January  17, 2024, January  19, 2024 and April 5, 2024;

 

   

the information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K from our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on April 3, 2024; and

 

   

the description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A filed on August 4, 2004 (File No. 001-32269), including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating this description.

All documents that we file with the SEC pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act on or after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of the offering of any securities made under this prospectus (excluding any portions of such documents that are deemed “furnished” to the SEC pursuant to applicable rules and regulations) will also be considered to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus and will automatically update and supersede the information in this prospectus and any previously filed documents.

 

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If you request, either orally or in writing, we will provide you with a copy of any or all documents that are incorporated by reference. Such documents will be provided to you free of charge, but will not contain any exhibits, unless those exhibits are incorporated by reference into the document. Requests should be addressed to Extra Space Storage Inc., 2795 East Cottonwood Parkway, Suite 300, Salt Lake City, Utah 84121, Attn: Investor Relations, telephone: (801) 365-4600.

 

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and the documents that we incorporate herein by reference contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (set forth in Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act). Also, documents we subsequently file with the SEC and incorporate by reference will contain forward-looking statements. In particular, statements pertaining to our capital resources, portfolio performance and results of operations contain forward-looking statements. Likewise, our pro forma information and our statements regarding anticipated growth in our funds from operations and anticipated market conditions, demographics and results of operations are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements involve numerous risks and uncertainties and you should not rely on them as predictions of future events. Forward-looking statements depend on assumptions, data or methods that may be incorrect or imprecise, and we may not be able to realize them. We do not guarantee that the transactions and events described will happen as described (or that they will happen at all). You can identify forward-looking statements by the use of forward-looking terminology such as “believes,” “expects,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “seeks,” “approximately,” “intends,” “plans,” “pro forma,” “estimates” or “anticipates” or the negative of these words and phrases or similar words or phrases. You can also identify forward-looking statements by discussions of strategy, plans or intentions. The following factors, among others, could cause actual results and future events to differ materially from those set forth or contemplated in the forward-looking statements:

 

   

adverse changes in general economic conditions, the real estate industry and in the markets in which we operate;

 

   

failure to close pending acquisitions and developments on expected terms, or at all;

 

   

the risk that Life Storage, Inc.’s (“Life Storage”) business will not be fully integrated successfully or that such integration may be more difficult, time-consuming or costly than expected;

 

   

the uncertainty of expected future financial performance and results of the combined company following completion of the Life Storage merger;

 

   

the effect of competition from new and existing stores or other storage alternatives, which could cause rents and occupancy rates to decline;

 

   

potential liability for uninsured losses and environmental contamination;

 

   

the impact of the regulatory environment as well as national, state, and local laws and regulations including, without limitation, those governing REITs, tenant reinsurance and other aspects of our business, which could adversely affect our results;

 

   

our ability to recover losses under our insurance policies;

 

   

disruptions in credit and financial markets and resulting difficulties in raising capital or obtaining credit at reasonable rates or at all, which could impede our ability to grow;

 

   

changes in global financial markets and increased interest rates;

 

   

risks associated with acquisitions, dispositions and development of properties, including increased development costs due to additional regulatory requirements related to climate change and other factors;

 

   

reductions in asset valuations and related impairment charges;

 

   

our lack of sole decision-making authority with respect to our joint venture investments;

 

   

the effect of recent or future changes to U.S. tax laws;

 

   

the failure to maintain our REIT status for U.S. federal income tax purposes;

 

   

impacts from any outbreak of highly infectious or contagious diseases, including reduced demand for self-storage space and ancillary products and services such as tenant reinsurance, and potential

 

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decreases in occupancy and rental rates and staffing levels, which could adversely affect our results; and

 

   

economic uncertainty due to the impact of natural disasters, war or terrorism, which could adversely affect our business plan.

While forward-looking statements reflect our good-faith beliefs, they are not guarantees of future performance. We disclaim any obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. For a further discussion of these and other factors that could impact our future results, performance or transactions, see the section above entitled “Risk Factors,” including the risks incorporated therein from our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

Unless we indicate otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to contribute the net proceeds from any sale of the securities pursuant to this prospectus to our Operating Partnership in exchange for Operating Partnership units (“OP units”). Our Operating Partnership intends to use the net proceeds received from us or from any sale of offered securities by it as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Pending application of cash proceeds, we will invest the net proceeds in interest-bearing accounts and short-term, interest-bearing securities which are consistent with our intention to continue to qualify as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

If a prospectus supplement includes an offering by selling security holders, we will not receive any proceeds from such sales.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK

General

This prospectus describes the general terms of our common stock. The following description is not complete and may not contain all of the information you should consider before investing in our common stock. For a more detailed description of these securities, you should read the applicable provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law (“MGCL”) and our charter and bylaws, as amended and supplemented from time to time. This description is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, our charter and bylaws and the MGCL. Copies of our existing charter and bylaws are filed with the SEC and are incorporated herein by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. See “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference.”

When we offer to sell shares of a particular class or series of stock, we will describe the specific terms of the series in a prospectus supplement. Accordingly, for a description of the terms of any class or series of stock, you must refer to both the prospectus supplement relating to that class or series and the description of stock in this prospectus. To the extent the information contained in the prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.

Our charter provides that we may issue up to 500,000,000 shares of our common stock, par value $0.01 per share. Our charter authorizes our board of directors, with the approval of a majority of our board of directors and without stockholder approval, to amend our charter from time to time to increase or decrease the aggregate number of authorized shares of stock or the number of authorized shares of stock of any class or series. As of December 31, 2023, 211,278,803 shares of our common stock were issued and outstanding.

All shares of our common stock offered hereby will be duly authorized, fully paid and nonassessable. Subject to the preferential rights of any other class or series of stock and to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of stock, holders of shares of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends on such stock if, as and when authorized by our board of directors out of assets legally available therefor and declared by us and to share ratably in the assets of our company legally available for distribution to our stockholders in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up after payment of or adequate provision for all known debts and liabilities of our company.

Provisions of Our Charter

Subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of stock, and except as may otherwise be specified in the terms of any class or series of our common stock, each outstanding share of our common stock entitles the holder to one vote on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders, including the election of directors and, except as provided with respect to any other class or series of stock, the holders of such shares will possess the exclusive voting power. There is no cumulative voting in the election of our board of directors, which means that the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of our common stock can elect all of the directors then standing for election and the holders of the remaining shares will not be able to elect any directors.

Holders of shares of our common stock have no preference, conversion, exchange, sinking fund, redemption or appraisal rights and have no preemptive rights to subscribe for any of our securities. Subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of stock, shares of our common stock will have equal dividend, liquidation and other rights.

Under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation generally cannot dissolve, amend its charter, merge, sell all or substantially all of its assets, convert into another entity, engage in a statutory share exchange or engage in similar transactions outside the ordinary course of business unless declared advisable by the board of directors

 

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and approved by its stockholders by the affirmative vote of two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, unless a lesser percentage (but not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter) is set forth in the corporation’s charter. Except for certain charter amendments, our charter provides that any such action shall be effective if approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. However, our operating assets may be held by our subsidiaries and these subsidiaries may be able to transfer all of their assets without any vote of our stockholders.

Our charter authorizes our board of directors to reclassify any unissued shares of our common stock into other classes or series of stock, and to establish the number of shares in each class or series, and to set the preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption for each such class or series.

Power to Increase Authorized Stock and Issue Additional Shares of Our Common Stock

We believe that the power of our board of directors to (1) amend our charter to increase the number of authorized shares of stock or the number of authorized shares of stock of any class or series, (2) cause us to issue additional authorized but unissued shares of our common stock and (3) classify or reclassify unissued shares of our common stock and thereafter to cause us to issue such classified or reclassified shares of stock will provide us with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs which might arise. The additional classes or series, as well as the common stock, will be available for issuance without further action by our stockholders, unless stockholder consent is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which our securities may be listed or traded. Although our board of directors does not currently intend to do so, it could authorize us to issue a class or series of stock that could, depending upon the terms of the particular class or series, delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for our stockholders or otherwise be in their best interests.

Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer

To assist us in complying with certain U.S. federal income tax requirements applicable to REITs, we have adopted certain restrictions relating to the ownership and transfer of our common stock. See “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.”

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Equiniti Trust Company, LLC.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED STOCK

General

This prospectus describes the general terms of our preferred stock. The following description is not complete and may not contain all of the information you should consider before investing in our preferred stock. For a more detailed description of these securities, you should read the applicable provisions of the MGCL and our charter, including the applicable articles supplementary, and bylaws, as amended and supplemented from time to time. Copies of our existing charter and bylaws are filed with the SEC and are incorporated herein by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. See “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference.”

When we offer to sell a particular class or series of stock, we will describe the specific terms of the class or series in a prospectus supplement. Accordingly, for a description of the terms of any class or series of stock, you must refer to both the prospectus supplement relating to that class or series and the description of stock in this prospectus. To the extent the information contained in the prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.

Our charter provides that we may issue up to 50,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.01 per share. Our charter authorizes our board of directors to amend our charter from time to time to increase or decrease the number of authorized shares of stock of any class or series without stockholder approval. As of December 31, 2023, no shares of preferred stock were issued and outstanding.

Our charter authorizes our board of directors to classify any unissued shares of preferred stock and to reclassify any previously classified but unissued shares of stock of any class or series. Prior to issuance of shares of each class or series, our board of directors is required by the MGCL and our charter to set the preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, including without limitation, restrictions on transferability, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption for each such class or series. The issuance of preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power, dividend rights and other rights of holders of our common stock. Our board of directors could authorize the issuance of shares of preferred stock with terms and conditions which could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for holders of our stock or otherwise be in their best interests. Management believes that the availability of preferred stock provides the company with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs that might arise.

The specific terms of a particular class or series of preferred stock will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to that class or series, including a prospectus supplement providing that preferred stock may be issuable upon the exercise of warrants we issue. The preferences and other terms of the preferred stock of each class or series will be fixed by the articles supplementary relating to such class or series. The description of preferred stock set forth below and the description of the terms of a particular class or series of preferred stock set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement do not purport to be complete and are qualified in their entirety by reference to our charter, including the articles supplementary relating to that class or series, our bylaws and the MGCL.

A prospectus supplement, relating to each class or series of preferred stock that we may offer or sell, will specify the terms of the preferred stock as follows:

 

   

the designation and stated value of the preferred stock;

 

   

the number of shares of the preferred stock offered, the liquidation preference per share and the offering price of the preferred stock;

 

   

the dividend rate(s), period(s) and/or payment date(s) or method(s) of calculation thereof applicable to the preferred stock;

 

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whether the dividends on the preferred stock are cumulative or not and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends on the preferred stock will accumulate;

 

   

the provision for a sinking fund, if any, for the preferred stock;

 

   

the provision for redemption, if applicable, of the preferred stock;

 

   

any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange;

 

   

preemptive rights, if any;

 

   

the terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which the preferred stock will be converted into our common stock, including the conversion price (or manner of calculation thereof);

 

   

a discussion of any material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to an investment in the preferred stock (to the extent not otherwise covered in this prospectus);

 

   

any limitations on actual and constructive ownership and restrictions on transfer, in each case as may be appropriate to preserve our status as a REIT;

 

   

the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our company;

 

   

any limitations on issuance of any class or series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on a parity with such class or series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;

 

   

voting rights, if any, of the preferred stock; and

 

   

any other specific terms, preferences, rights, limitations or restrictions of the preferred stock.

Rank

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, the preferred stock will, with respect to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our company, rank: (1) senior to all classes or series of our common stock, and to any other class or series of our stock expressly designated as ranking junior to the preferred stock; (2) on parity with any class or series of our stock expressly designated as ranking on parity with the preferred stock; and (3) junior to any other class or series of our stock expressly designated as ranking senior to the preferred stock.

Redemption Rights

If so provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, the preferred stock will be subject to mandatory redemption or redemption at our option, as a whole or in part, in each case upon the terms, at the times and at the redemption prices set forth in the prospectus supplement.

Conversion Rights

The terms and conditions, if any, upon which any shares of any class or series of preferred stock are convertible into shares of our common stock will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms will include the number of shares of our common stock into which the shares of preferred stock are convertible, the conversion price, or manner of calculation thereof, the conversion period, provisions as to whether conversion will be at the option of the holders of such class or series of preferred stock or us, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price and provisions affecting conversion in the event of the redemption of such class or series of preferred stock.

Power to Increase Authorized Stock and Issue Additional Shares of Our Preferred Stock

Our board of directors has the power, without stockholder approval, to amend our charter from time to time to increase the number of authorized shares of stock or the number of authorized shares of stock of any class or

 

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series, to cause us to issue additional authorized but unissued shares of our preferred stock and to classify or reclassify unissued shares of our preferred stock and thereafter to cause us to issue such classified or reclassified shares of stock. The additional classes or series will be available for issuance without further action by our stockholders, unless stockholder consent is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which our securities may be listed or traded. Although our board of directors does not currently intend to do so, it could authorize us to issue a class or series that could, depending upon the terms of the particular class or series, delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for our stockholders or otherwise be in their best interests.

Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer

To assist us in complying with certain U.S. federal income tax requirements applicable to REITs, we have adopted certain restrictions relating to the ownership and transfer of our common stock. We expect to adopt similar restrictions with respect to any class or series of preferred stock offered pursuant to this prospectus under the articles supplementary for each such class or series. The applicable prospectus supplement will specify any additional ownership limitation relating to such class or series. See “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.”

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES

We may, at our option, elect to offer depositary shares rather than full shares of preferred stock. Each depositary share will represent ownership of and entitlement to all rights and preferences of a fraction of a share of preferred stock of a specified series (including dividend, voting, redemption and liquidation rights). The applicable fraction will be specified in a prospectus supplement. The shares of preferred stock represented by the depositary shares will be deposited with a depositary named in the applicable prospectus supplement, under a deposit agreement among us, the depositary and the holders of the certificates evidencing depositary shares (“depositary receipts”). Depositary receipts will be delivered to those persons purchasing depositary shares in the offering. The depositary will be the transfer agent, registrar and dividend disbursing agent for the depositary shares. Holders of depositary receipts agree to be bound by the deposit agreement, which requires holders to take certain actions such as filing proof of residence and paying certain charges.

The summary of the terms of the depositary shares contained in this prospectus does not purport to be complete and is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by, the provisions of the deposit agreement, our charter and the form of articles supplementary that are, or will be, filed with the SEC for the applicable class or series of preferred stock.

Dividends

The depositary will distribute all cash dividends or other cash distributions received in respect of the series of preferred stock represented by the depositary shares to the record holders of depositary receipts in proportion to the number of depositary shares owned by such holders on the relevant record date, which will be the same date as the record date fixed by us for the applicable series of preferred stock. The depositary, however, will distribute only such amount as can be distributed without attributing to any depositary share a fraction of one cent, and any balance not so distributed will be added to and treated as part of the next sum received by the depositary for distribution to record holders of depositary receipts then outstanding.

In the event of a distribution other than in cash, the depositary will distribute property received by it to the record holders of depositary receipts entitled thereto, in proportion, as nearly as may be practicable, to the number of depositary shares owned by such holders on the relevant record date, unless the depositary determines (after consultation with us) that it is not feasible to make such distribution, in which case the depositary may (with our approval) adopt any other method for such distribution as it deems equitable and appropriate, including the sale of such property (at such place or places and upon such terms as it may deem equitable and appropriate) and distribution of the net proceeds from such sale to such holders.

No distribution will be made in respect of any depositary share to the extent that it represents any preferred stock transferred to a trust for the benefit of one or more charitable beneficiaries. See “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.”

Liquidation Preference

In the event of the liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our company, whether voluntary or involuntary, the holders of each depositary share will be entitled to the fraction of the liquidation preference accorded each share of the applicable series of preferred stock as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Redemption

If the series of preferred stock represented by the applicable series of depositary shares is redeemable, such depositary shares will be redeemed from the proceeds received by the depositary resulting from the redemption, in whole or in part, of the preferred stock held by the depositary. Whenever we redeem any preferred stock held

 

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by the depositary, the depositary will redeem as of the same redemption date the number of depositary shares representing the shares of preferred stock so redeemed. The depositary will mail the notice of redemption promptly upon receipt of such notice from us and not less than 30 nor more than 60 days prior to the date fixed for redemption of the preferred stock and the depositary shares to the record holders of the depositary receipts.

Voting

Promptly upon receipt of notice of any meeting at which the holders of the series of preferred stock represented by the applicable series of depositary shares are entitled to vote, the depositary will mail the information contained in such notice of meeting to the record holders of the depositary receipts as of the record date for such meeting. Each such record holder of depositary receipts will be entitled to instruct the depositary as to the exercise of the voting rights pertaining to the number of shares of preferred stock represented by such record holder’s depositary shares. The depositary will endeavor, insofar as practicable, to vote such preferred stock represented by such depositary shares in accordance with such instructions, and we will agree to take all action which may be deemed necessary by the depositary in order to enable the depositary to do so. The depositary will abstain from voting any of the preferred stock to the extent that it does not receive specific instructions from the holders of depositary receipts.

Withdrawal of Preferred Stock

Upon surrender of depositary receipts at the principal office of the depositary and payment of any unpaid amount due the depositary, and subject to the terms of the deposit agreement, the owner of the depositary shares evidenced thereby is entitled to delivery of the number of whole shares of preferred stock and all money and other property, if any, represented by such depositary shares. Partial shares of preferred stock will not be issued. If the depositary receipts delivered by the holder evidence a number of depositary shares in excess of the number of depositary shares representing the number of whole shares of preferred stock to be withdrawn, the depositary will deliver to such holder at the same time a new depositary receipt evidencing such excess number of depositary shares. Holders of preferred stock thus withdrawn will not thereafter be entitled to deposit such shares under the deposit agreement or to receive depositary receipts evidencing depositary shares therefor.

Amendment and Termination of Deposit Agreement

The form of depositary receipt evidencing the depositary shares and any provision of the deposit agreement may at any time and from time to time be amended by agreement between us and the depositary. However, any amendment which materially and adversely alters the rights of the holders (other than any change in fees) of depositary shares will not be effective unless such amendment has been approved by at least a majority of the depositary shares then outstanding. No such amendment may impair the right, subject to the terms of the deposit agreement, of any owner of any depositary shares to surrender the depositary receipt evidencing such depositary shares with instructions to the depositary to deliver to the holder of the preferred stock and all money and other property, if any, represented thereby, except in order to comply with mandatory provisions of applicable law.

The deposit agreement will be permitted to be terminated by us upon not less than 30 days’ prior written notice to the applicable depositary if (1) such termination is necessary to preserve our status as a REIT or (2) a majority of each series of preferred stock affected by such termination consents to such termination, whereupon such depositary will be required to deliver or make available to each holder of depositary receipts, upon surrender of the depositary receipts held by such holder, such number of whole or fractional shares of preferred stock as are represented by the depositary shares evidenced by such depositary receipts together with any other property held by such depositary with respect to such depositary receipts. We will agree that if the deposit agreement is terminated to preserve our status as a REIT, then we will use our best efforts to list the preferred stock issued upon surrender of the related depositary shares on a national securities exchange. In addition, the deposit agreement will automatically terminate if (a) all outstanding depositary shares thereunder shall have been redeemed, (b) there shall have been a final distribution in respect of the related preferred stock in connection with

 

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any liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of our company and such distribution shall have been distributed to the holders of depositary receipts evidencing the depositary shares representing such preferred stock or (c) each share of the related preferred stock shall have been converted into stock of our company not so represented by depositary shares.

Charges of Depositary

We will pay all transfer and other taxes and governmental charges arising solely from the existence of the depositary arrangements. We will pay charges of the depositary in connection with the initial deposit of the preferred stock and initial issuance of the depositary shares, and redemption of the preferred stock and all withdrawals of preferred stock by owners of depositary shares. Holders of depositary receipts will pay transfer, income and other taxes and governmental charges and certain other charges as are provided in the deposit agreement to be for their accounts. In certain circumstances, the depositary may refuse to transfer depositary shares, may withhold dividends and distributions and sell the depositary shares evidenced by such depositary receipt if such charges are not paid. The applicable prospectus supplement will include information with respect to fees and charges, if any, in connection with the deposit or substitution of the underlying securities, the receipt and distribution of dividends, the sale or exercise of rights, the withdrawal of the underlying security, and the transferring, splitting or grouping of receipts. The applicable prospectus supplement will also include information with respect to the right to collect the fees and charges, if any, against dividends received and deposited securities.

Miscellaneous

The depositary will forward to the holders of depositary receipts all notices, reports and proxy soliciting material from us which are delivered to the depositary and which we are required to furnish to the holders of the preferred stock. In addition, the depositary will make available for inspection by holders of depositary receipts at the principal office of the depositary, and at such other places as it may from time to time deem advisable, any notices, reports and proxy soliciting material received from us which are received by the depositary as the holder of preferred stock. The applicable prospectus supplement will include information about the rights, if any, of holders of receipts to inspect the transfer books of the depositary and the list of holders of receipts.

Neither the depositary nor our company assumes any obligation, or will be subject to any liability under the deposit agreement, to holders of depositary receipts other than for its negligence or willful misconduct. Neither the depositary nor our company will be liable if it is prevented or delayed by law or any circumstance beyond its control in performing its obligations under the deposit agreement. The obligations of our company and the depositary under the deposit agreement will be limited to performance in good faith of their duties thereunder, and they will not be obligated to prosecute or defend any legal proceeding in respect of any depositary shares or preferred stock unless satisfactory indemnity is furnished. Our company and the depositary may rely on written advice of counsel or accountants, on information provided by holders of the depositary receipts or other persons believed in good faith to be competent to give such information and on documents believed to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties.

In the event the depositary shall receive conflicting claims, requests or instructions from any holders of depositary receipts, on the one hand, and us, on the other hand, the depositary shall be entitled to act on such claims, requests or instructions received from us.

Resignation and Removal of Depositary

The depositary may resign at any time by delivering to us notice of its election to do so, and we may at any time remove the depositary, any such resignation or removal to take effect upon the appointment of a successor depositary and its acceptance of such appointment. Such successor depositary must be appointed within 60 days after delivery of the notice for resignation or removal and must be a bank or trust company having its principal office in the United States and having a combined capital and surplus of at least $150,000,000.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

We may issue warrants for the purchase of shares of our common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares or debt securities. We may issue warrants independently or together with other securities, and the warrants may be attached to or separate from any offered securities. Each series of warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between us and the investors or a warrant agent. The following summary of material provisions of the warrants and warrant agreements is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the warrant agreement and warrant certificate applicable to a particular series of warrants. The terms of any warrants offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as the complete warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants.

The particular terms of any issue of warrants will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to the issue. Those terms may include:

 

   

the number of shares of our common stock or preferred stock or depositary shares purchasable upon the exercise of warrants to purchase such shares and the price at which such number of shares may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

   

the designation, stated value and terms (including, without limitation, liquidation, dividend, conversion and voting rights) of the series of preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of warrants to purchase preferred stock or depositary shares;

 

   

the principal amount of debt securities that may be purchased upon exercise of a debt warrant and the exercise price for the warrants, which may be payable in cash, securities or other property;

 

   

the date, if any, on and after which the warrants and the related debt securities, common stock, preferred stock or depositary shares will be separately transferable;

 

   

the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;

 

   

the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and the date on which the right will expire;

 

   

a discussion of any material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to an investment in the warrants; and

 

   

any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange, exercise and settlement of the warrants.

Holders of equity warrants will not be entitled to:

 

   

vote, consent or receive dividends;

 

   

receive notice as stockholders with respect to any meeting of stockholders for the election of our directors or any other matter; or

 

   

exercise any rights as our stockholders.

Each warrant will entitle its holder to purchase the principal amount of debt securities or the number of shares of our common stock or preferred stock or depositary shares at the exercise price set forth in, or calculable as set forth in, the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants at any time up to the specified time on the expiration date that we set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.

A holder of warrant certificates may exchange them for new warrant certificates of different denominations, present them for registration of transfer and exercise them at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any

 

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other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. Until any warrants to purchase debt securities are exercised, the holders of the warrants will not have any rights of holders of the debt securities that can be purchased upon exercise, including any rights to receive payments of principal, premium or interest on the underlying debt securities or to enforce covenants in the applicable indenture. Until any warrants to purchase shares of our common stock or preferred stock or depositary shares are exercised, the holders of the warrants will not have any rights of holders of the underlying common stock or preferred stock, including any rights to receive dividends or payments upon any liquidation, dissolution or winding up on the common stock or preferred stock, if any.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS

We may issue rights to purchase shares of our common stock or preferred stock. Each series of rights will be issued under a separate rights agreement to be entered into between us and a bank or trust company, as rights agent. The statements made in this section relating to the rights are summaries only. These summaries are not complete. This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement will contain the material terms and conditions for each right. To the extent the information contained in the applicable prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement. For more detail, we refer you to the applicable rights agreement itself, which we will file as an exhibit to, or incorporate by reference in, the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

If we offer any series of rights, certain terms of that series of rights will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, including, without limitation, the following:

 

   

the title of the rights;

 

   

the date of determining the stockholders entitled to the rights distribution;

 

   

the title and aggregate number of shares of our common stock or preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of the rights;

 

   

the exercise price;

 

   

the aggregate number of rights issued;

 

   

the date, if any, on and after which the rights will be separately transferable;

 

   

the date on which the right to exercise the rights will commence and the date on which the right will expire;

 

   

a discussion of any material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to an investment in the rights; and

 

   

any other terms of the rights, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the distribution, exchange and exercise of the rights.

Exercise of Rights

Each right will entitle the holder of rights to purchase for cash the principal amount of shares of our common stock or preferred stock at the exercise price provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. Rights may be exercised at any time up to the close of business on the expiration date for the rights provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, all unexercised rights will be void.

Holders may exercise rights as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Upon receipt of payment and the rights certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the rights agent or any other office indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, forward the shares of our common stock or preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of the rights. If less than all of the rights issued in any rights offering are exercised, we may offer any unsubscribed securities directly, to or through agents, underwriters or dealers, or through a combination of such methods, including pursuant to standby underwriting arrangements, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

We may issue units consisting of any combination of the other types of securities offered under this prospectus in one or more series. We may evidence each series of units by unit certificates that we will issue under a separate agreement. We may enter into unit agreements with a unit agent. Each unit agent will be a bank or trust company that we select. We will indicate the name and address of the unit agent in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of units.

The following description, together with the additional information included in any applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes the general features of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. You should read the applicable prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you relating to the series of units being offered, as well as the complete unit agreements that contain the terms of the units. Specific unit agreements will contain additional important terms and provisions, and we will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from another report that we file with the SEC, the form of each unit agreement relating to units offered under this prospectus.

If we offer any units, certain terms of that series of units will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, including, without limitation, the following, as applicable:

 

   

the title of the series of units;

 

   

identification and description of the separate constituent securities comprising the units;

 

   

the price or prices at which the units will be issued;

 

   

the date, if any, on and after which the constituent securities comprising the units will be separately transferable;

 

   

a discussion of any material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to an investment in the units; and

 

   

any other terms of the units and their constituent securities.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES AND GUARANTEES

The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, summarizes certain general terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. When we offer to sell a particular series of debt securities, we will describe the specific terms of the series in a supplement to this prospectus. We will also indicate in the supplement to what extent the general terms and provisions described in this prospectus apply to a particular series of debt securities.

We may issue debt securities either separately, or together with, or upon the conversion or exercise of or in exchange for, other securities described in this prospectus. Debt securities may be our senior, senior subordinated or subordinated obligations and, unless otherwise specified in a supplement to this prospectus, the debt securities will be our direct, unsecured obligations and may be issued in one or more series.

The debt securities will be issued under an indenture between us and a trustee named in the prospectus supplement. We have summarized select portions of the indenture below. The summary is not complete. The form of the indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement and you should read the indenture for provisions that may be important to you. In the summary below, we have included references to the section numbers of the indenture so that you can easily locate these provisions. Capitalized terms used in the summary and not defined herein have the meanings specified in the indenture.

As used in this section only, “the operating partnership,” “we,” “our” or “us” refer to Extra Space Storage LP excluding our subsidiaries, unless expressly stated or the context otherwise requires.

General

The terms of each series of debt securities will be established by or pursuant to a resolution of the trustees of ESS Holdings Business Trust I and set forth or determined in the manner provided in such resolution, in an officer’s certificate or by a supplemental indenture. (Section 2.2) The particular terms of each series of debt securities will be described in a prospectus supplement relating to such series (including any pricing supplement or term sheet).

We can issue an unlimited amount of debt securities under the indenture that may be in one or more series with the same or various maturities, at par, at a premium, or at a discount. (Section 2.1) We will set forth in a prospectus supplement (including any pricing supplement or term sheet) relating to any series of debt securities being offered, the aggregate principal amount and the following terms of the debt securities, if applicable:

 

   

the title and ranking of the debt securities (including the terms of any subordination provisions);

 

   

the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount) at which we will sell the debt securities;

 

   

any limit on the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;

 

   

the date or dates on which the principal of the securities of the series is payable;

 

   

the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or the method used to determine the rate or rates (including any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the debt securities will bear interest, the date or dates from which interest will accrue, the date or dates on which interest will commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;

 

   

the place or places where principal of, and interest, if any, on the debt securities will be payable (and the method of such payment), where the securities of such series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange, and where notices and demands to us in respect of the debt securities may be delivered;

 

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the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which we may redeem the debt securities;

 

   

any obligation we have to redeem or purchase the debt securities pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a holder of debt securities and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and in the terms and conditions upon which securities of the series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

   

the dates on which and the price or prices at which we will repurchase debt securities at the option of the holders of debt securities and other detailed terms and provisions of these repurchase obligations;

 

   

the denominations in which the debt securities will be issued, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be issued in the form of certificated debt securities or global debt securities;

 

   

the portion of principal amount of the debt securities payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity date, if other than the principal amount;

 

   

the currency of denomination of the debt securities, which may be U.S. Dollars or any foreign currency, and if such currency of denomination is a composite currency, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;

 

   

the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of principal of, and premium and interest on, the debt securities will be made;

 

   

if payments of principal of, or premium or interest on, the debt securities will be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which the debt securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to these payments will be determined;

 

   

the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities will be determined, if these amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;

 

   

any provisions relating to any security provided for the debt securities;

 

   

any addition to, deletion of or change in the Events of Default described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities and any change in the acceleration provisions described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;

 

   

any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;

 

   

any depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to the debt securities;

 

   

the provisions, if any, relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of such series, including if applicable, the conversion or exchange price and period, provisions as to whether conversion or exchange will be mandatory, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion or exchange price and provisions affecting conversion or exchange;

 

   

any other terms of the debt securities, which may supplement, modify or delete any provision of the indenture as it applies to that series, including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of the securities; and

 

   

whether any of our direct or indirect subsidiaries will guarantee the debt securities of that series, including the terms of subordination, if any, of such guarantees. (Section 2.2)

 

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We may issue debt securities that provide for an amount less than their stated principal amount to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity pursuant to the terms of the indenture. We will provide you with information on the federal income tax considerations and other special considerations applicable to any of these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.

If we denominate the purchase price of any of the debt securities in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, or if the principal of and any premium and interest on any series of debt securities is payable in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, we will provide you with information on the restrictions, elections, general tax considerations, specific terms and other information with respect to that issue of debt securities and such foreign currency or currencies or foreign currency unit or units in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Transfer and Exchange

Each debt security will be represented by either one or more global securities registered in the name of The Depository Trust Company (the “Depositary”) or a nominee of the Depositary (we will refer to any debt security represented by a global debt security as a “book-entry debt security”), or a certificate issued in definitive registered form (we will refer to any debt security represented by a certificated security as a “certificated debt security”) as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Except as set forth under the heading “Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System” below, book-entry debt securities will not be issuable in certificated form.

Certificated Debt Securities. You may transfer or exchange certificated debt securities at any office we maintain for this purpose in accordance with the terms of the indenture. (Section 2.4) No service charge will be made for any transfer or exchange of certificated debt securities, but we may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with a transfer or exchange. (Section 2.7)

You may effect the transfer of certificated debt securities and the right to receive the principal of, and premium and interest on, certificated debt securities only by surrendering the certificate representing those certificated debt securities and either reissuance by us or the trustee of the certificate to the new holder or the issuance by us or the trustee of a new certificate to the new holder.

Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System. Each global debt security representing book-entry debt securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, the Depositary, and registered in the name of the Depositary or a nominee of the Depositary. Please see “Global Securities.”

Covenants

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement any restrictive covenants applicable to any issue of debt securities. (Article IV)

No Protection in the Event of a Change of Control

Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions which may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control) which could adversely affect holders of debt securities.

Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets

We may not consolidate with or merge with or into, or convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of our properties and assets to any person (a “successor person”) unless:

 

   

we are the surviving entity or the successor person (if other than the operating partnership) is a corporation, partnership, trust or other entity organized and validly existing under the laws of any U.S.

 

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domestic jurisdiction and expressly assumes our obligations on the debt securities and under the indenture;

 

   

immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Default or Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing; and

 

   

if we are not the successor person, then each guarantor, unless it has become the successor person, shall confirm that its guarantee shall continue to apply to the obligations under the debt securities and the indenture to the same extent as prior to such merger, conveyance, transfer or lease, as applicable.

Notwithstanding the above, any of our subsidiaries may consolidate with, merge into or transfer all or part of its properties to us. (Section 5.1)

Guarantees

Unless otherwise described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities issued by the operating partnership will be fully and unconditionally guaranteed by Extra Space Storage Inc. and the Guarantors. These guarantees will be joint and several obligations of the guarantors. If a series of debt securities is so guaranteed, an indenture, or a supplemental indenture thereto, will be executed by the guarantors. The obligations of the guarantors under the guarantee will be limited as necessary to prevent that guarantee from constituting a fraudulent conveyance under applicable law. The terms of the guarantees will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Events of Default

“Event of Default” means with respect to any series of debt securities, any of the following:

 

   

default in the payment of any interest upon any debt security of that series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of the payment is deposited by us with the trustee or with a paying agent prior to the expiration of the 30-day period);

 

   

default in the payment of principal of any security of that series at its maturity;

 

   

default in the performance or breach of any other covenant or warranty by us in the indenture (other than a covenant or warranty that has been included in the indenture solely for the benefit of a series of debt securities other than that series), which default continues uncured for a period of 60 days after we receive written notice from the trustee or the operating partnership and the trustee receive written notice from the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series as provided in the indenture;

 

   

certain voluntary or involuntary events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization of the operating partnership or any guarantor; or

 

   

any other Event of Default provided with respect to debt securities of that series that is described in the applicable prospectus supplement. (Section 6.1)

No Event of Default with respect to a particular series of debt securities (except as to certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) necessarily constitutes an Event of Default with respect to any other series of debt securities. (Section 6.1) The occurrence of certain Events of Default or an acceleration under the indenture may constitute an event of default under certain indebtedness of ours or our subsidiaries outstanding from time to time.

If an Event of Default with respect to debt securities of any series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, then the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt

 

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securities of that series may, by a notice in writing to us (and to the trustee if given by the holders), declare to be due and payable immediately the principal of (or, if the debt securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all debt securities of that series. In the case of an Event of Default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, the principal (or such specified amount) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all outstanding debt securities will become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the trustee or any holder of outstanding debt securities. At any time after a declaration of acceleration with respect to debt securities of any series has been made, but before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may rescind and annul the acceleration if all Events of Default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal and interest, if any, with respect to debt securities of that series, have been cured or waived as provided in the indenture. (Section 6.2) We refer you to the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities that are discount securities for the particular provisions relating to acceleration of a portion of the principal amount of such discount securities upon the occurrence of an Event of Default.

The indenture provides that the trustee may refuse to perform any duty or exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture unless the trustee receives indemnity satisfactory to it against any cost, liability or expense which might be incurred by it in performing such duty or exercising such right or power. (Section 7.1(e)) Subject to certain rights of the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to the debt securities of that series. (Section 6.12)

No holder of any debt security of any series will have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to the indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any remedy under the indenture, unless:

 

   

that holder has previously given to the trustee written notice of a continuing Event of Default with respect to debt securities of that series; and

 

   

the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request, and offered indemnity or security satisfactory to the trustee, to the trustee to institute the proceeding as trustee, and the trustee has not received from the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series a direction inconsistent with that request and has failed to institute the proceeding within 60 days. (Section 6.7)

Notwithstanding any other provision in the indenture, the holder of any debt security will have an absolute and unconditional right to receive payment of the principal of, and the premium and any interest on, that debt security on or after the due dates expressed in that debt security and to institute suit for the enforcement of payment. (Section 6.8)

The indenture requires us, within 120 days after the end of our fiscal year, to furnish to the trustee a statement as to compliance with the indenture. (Section 4.3) If a Default or Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the securities of any series and if it is known to a responsible officer of the trustee, the trustee shall mail to each security holder of the securities of that series notice of a Default or Event of Default within 90 days after it occurs or, if later, after a responsible officer of the trustee has knowledge of such Default or Event of Default. The indenture provides that the trustee may withhold notice to the holders of debt securities of any series of any Default or Event of Default (except in payment on any debt securities of that series) with respect to debt securities of that series if the trustee determines in good faith that withholding notice is in the interest of the holders of those debt securities. (Section 7.5)

 

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Modification and Waiver

We and the trustee may modify, amend or supplement the indenture or the debt securities of any series without the consent of any holder of any debt security:

 

   

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency;

 

   

to comply with covenants in the indenture described above under the heading “Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets”;

 

   

to provide for uncertificated securities in addition to or in place of certificated securities;

 

   

to surrender any of our rights or powers under the indenture;

 

   

to add covenants or events of default for the benefit of the holders of debt securities of any series;

 

   

to comply with the applicable procedures of the applicable depositary;

 

   

to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder of debt securities;

 

   

to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of debt securities of any series as permitted by the indenture;

 

   

to effect the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the debt securities of any series and to add to or change any of the provisions of the indenture to provide for or facilitate administration by more than one trustee;

 

   

to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act;

 

   

to reflect the release of any guarantor in accordance with Article XII of the indenture; or

 

   

to add guarantors with respect to any or all of the securities or to secure any or all of the securities or the guarantees (Section 9.1)

We may also modify and amend the indenture with the consent of the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series affected by the modifications or amendments. We may not make any modification or amendment without the consent of the holders of each affected debt security then outstanding if that amendment will:

 

   

reduce the amount of debt securities whose holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver;

 

   

reduce the rate of or extend the time for payment of interest (including default interest) on any debt security;

 

   

reduce the principal of or premium on or change the fixed maturity of any debt security or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation with respect to any series of debt securities;

 

   

reduce the principal amount of discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity;

 

   

waive a default in the payment of the principal of, or premium or interest on, any debt security (except a rescission of acceleration of the debt securities of any series by the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding debt securities of that series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);

 

   

make the principal of or premium or interest on any debt security payable in currency other than that stated in the debt security;

 

   

make any change to certain provisions of the indenture relating to, among other things, the right of holders of debt securities to receive payment of the principal of, and premium and interest, on those debt securities and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment and to waivers or amendments;

 

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waive a redemption payment with respect to any debt security; or

 

   

if the debt securities of that series are entitled to the benefit of a guarantee, release any guarantor of such series other than as provided in the indenture or modify the guarantee in any manner adverse to the holders. (Section 9.3)

Except for certain specified provisions, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all debt securities of that series waive our compliance with provisions of the indenture. (Section 9.2) The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all the debt securities of such series waive any past default under the indenture with respect to that series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, or the premium or any interest on, any debt security of that series; provided, however, that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from the acceleration. (Section 6.13)

Defeasance of Debt Securities and Certain Covenants in Certain Circumstances

Legal Defeasance. The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, we may be discharged from any and all obligations in respect of the debt securities of any series (subject to certain exceptions). We will be so discharged upon the irrevocable deposit with the trustee, in trust, of money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. Dollars, government obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money or U.S. government obligations in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal, premium and interest on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities.

This discharge may occur only if, among other things, we have delivered to the trustee an opinion of counsel stating that we have received from, or there has been published by, the United States Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) a ruling or, since the date of execution of the indenture, there has been a change in the applicable U.S. federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred. (Section 8.3)

Defeasance of Certain Covenants. The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, upon compliance with certain conditions:

 

   

we may omit to comply with the covenant described under the heading “Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets” and certain other covenants set forth in the indenture, as well as any additional covenants which may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement; and

 

   

any omission to comply with those covenants will not constitute a Default or an Event of Default with respect to the debt securities of that series (“covenant defeasance”).

The conditions include:

 

   

depositing with the trustee money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. Dollars, government obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally

 

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recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of the principal of, and the premium and interest on, and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities; and

 

   

delivering to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and related covenant defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit and related covenant defeasance had not occurred. (Section 8.4)

Satisfaction and Discharge

The indenture will be discharged and will cease to be of further effect (except as to surviving rights or registration of transfer or exchange of the debt securities, as expressly provided for in the indenture) as to all outstanding debt securities when:

 

   

either:

 

   

all the debt securities theretofore authenticated and delivered (except lost, stolen or destroyed debt securities which have been replaced or paid) have been delivered to the trustee for cancellation; or

 

   

all debt securities not theretofore delivered to the trustee for cancellation have become due and payable by reason of sending a notice of redemption, will become due and payable at their maturity within one year, have been called for redemption or are to be called for redemption within one year, or are deemed paid and discharged pursuant to the legal defeasance provisions of the indenture, and our operating partnership has irrevocably deposited or caused to be irrevocably deposited with the trustee as trust funds in trust cash or noncallable U.S. government obligations in an amount sufficient to pay and discharge each installment of principal (including mandatory sinking fund or analogous payments) of and interest on all such debt securities on the dates such installments of principal or interest are due;

 

   

our operating partnership has paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable under the indenture by our operating partnership; and

 

   

our operating partnership has delivered to the trustee an officer’s certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent provided for in the indenture relating to the satisfaction and discharge of the indenture have been complied with.

No Personal Liability of Directors, Officers, Employees or Security Holders

None of our past, present or future directors, officers, employees or security holders, as such, will have any liability for any of our obligations under the debt securities or the indenture or for any claim based on, or in respect or by reason of, such obligations or their creation. By accepting a debt security, each holder waives and releases all such liability. This waiver and release is part of the consideration for the issue of the debt securities. However, this waiver and release may not be effective to waive liabilities under U.S. federal securities laws, and it is the view of the SEC that such a waiver is against public policy.

Governing Law

The indenture and the debt securities, including any claim or controversy arising out of or relating to the indenture or the securities, will be governed by the laws of the State of New York.

The indenture will provide that we, the trustee and the holders of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably waive, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, any and all right to trial by jury in any legal proceeding arising out of or relating to the indenture, the debt securities or the transactions contemplated thereby.

 

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The indenture will provide that any legal suit, action or proceeding arising out of or based upon the indenture or the transactions contemplated thereby may be instituted in the federal courts of the United States of America located in the City of New York or the courts of the State of New York in each case located in the City of New York, and we, the trustee and the holder of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably submit to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of such courts in any such suit, action or proceeding. The indenture will further provide that service of any process, summons, notice or document by mail (to the extent allowed under any applicable statute or rule of court) to such party’s address set forth in the indenture will be effective service of process for any suit, action or other proceeding brought in any such court. The indenture will further provide that we, the trustee and the holders of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably and unconditionally waive any objection to the laying of venue of any suit, action or other proceeding in the courts specified above and irrevocably and unconditionally waive and agree not to plead or claim any such suit, action or other proceeding has been brought in an inconvenient forum. (Section 10.10)

 

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GLOBAL SECURITIES

Book-Entry, Delivery and Form

Unless we indicate differently in any applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, the securities initially will be issued in book-entry form and represented by one or more global notes or global securities (collectively, “global securities”). The global securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, the Depositary and registered in the name of Cede & Co., the nominee of the Depositary. Unless and until it is exchanged for individual certificates evidencing securities under the limited circumstances described below, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by the depositary to its nominee or by the nominee to the depositary, or by the depositary or its nominee to a successor depositary or to a nominee of the successor depositary.

The Depositary has advised us that it is:

 

   

a limited-purpose trust company organized under the New York Banking Law;

 

   

a “banking organization” within the meaning of the New York Banking Law;

 

   

a member of the Federal Reserve System;

 

   

a “clearing corporation” within the meaning of the New York Uniform Commercial Code; and

 

   

a “clearing agency” registered pursuant to the provisions of Section 17A of the Exchange Act.

The Depositary holds securities that its participants deposit with the Depositary. The Depositary also facilitates the settlement among its participants of securities transactions, such as transfers and pledges, in deposited securities through electronic computerized book-entry changes in participants’ accounts, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities certificates. “Direct participants” in the Depositary include securities brokers and dealers, including underwriters, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other organizations. The Depositary is a wholly-owned subsidiary of The Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation (“DTCC”). DTCC is the holding company for the Depositary, National Securities Clearing Corporation and Fixed Income Clearing Corporation, all of which are registered clearing agencies. DTCC is owned by the users of its regulated subsidiaries. Access to the Depositary system is also available to others, which we sometimes refer to as indirect participants, that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a direct participant, either directly or indirectly. The rules applicable to the Depositary and its participants are on file with the SEC.

Purchases of securities under the Depositary system must be made by or through direct participants, which will receive a credit for the securities on the Depositary’s records. The ownership interest of the actual purchaser of a security, which we sometimes refer to as a beneficial owner, is in turn recorded on the direct and indirect participants’ records. Beneficial owners of securities will not receive written confirmation from the Depositary of their purchases. However, beneficial owners are expected to receive written confirmations providing details of their transactions, as well as periodic statements of their holdings, from the direct or indirect participants through which they purchased securities. Transfers of ownership interests in global securities are to be accomplished by entries made on the books of participants acting on behalf of beneficial owners. Beneficial owners will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in the global securities, except under the limited circumstances described below.

To facilitate subsequent transfers, all global securities deposited by direct participants with the Depositary will be registered in the name of the Depositary’s partnership nominee, Cede & Co., or such other name as may be requested by an authorized representative of the Depositary. The deposit of securities with the Depositary and their registration in the name of Cede & Co. or such other nominee will not change the beneficial ownership of the securities. The Depositary has no knowledge of the actual beneficial owners of the securities. The Depositary’s records reflect only the identity of the direct participants to whose accounts the securities are

 

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credited, which may or may not be the beneficial owners. The participants are responsible for keeping account of their holdings on behalf of their customers.

So long as the securities are in book-entry form, you will receive payments and may transfer securities only through the facilities of the Depositary and its direct and indirect participants. We will maintain an office or agency in the location specified in the prospectus supplement for the applicable securities, where notices and demands in respect of the securities and the indenture may be delivered to us and where certificated securities may be surrendered for payment, registration of transfer or exchange.

Conveyance of notices and other communications by the Depositary to direct participants, by direct participants to indirect participants and by direct participants and indirect participants to beneficial owners will be governed by arrangements among them, subject to any legal requirements in effect from time to time.

Redemption notices will be sent to the Depositary. If less than all of the securities of a particular series are being redeemed, the Depositary’s practice is to determine by lot the amount of the interest of each direct participant in the securities of such series to be redeemed.

Neither the Depositary nor Cede & Co. (or such other nominee of the Depositary) will consent or vote with respect to the securities. Under its usual procedures, the Depositary will mail an omnibus proxy to us as soon as possible after the record date. The omnibus proxy assigns the consenting or voting rights of Cede & Co. to those direct participants to whose accounts the securities of such series are credited on the record date, identified in a listing attached to the omnibus proxy.

So long as securities are in book-entry form, we will make payments on those securities to the Depositary or its nominee, as the registered owner of such securities, by wire transfer of immediately available funds. If securities are issued in definitive certificated form under the limited circumstances described below, we will have the option of making payments by check mailed to the addresses of the persons entitled to payment or by wire transfer to bank accounts in the United States designated in writing to the applicable trustee or other designated party at least 15 days before the applicable payment date by the persons entitled to payment, unless a shorter period is satisfactory to the applicable trustee or other designated party.

Redemption proceeds, distributions and dividend payments on the securities will be made to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of the Depositary. The Depositary’s practice is to credit direct participants’ accounts upon the Depositary’s receipt of funds and corresponding detail information from us on the payment date in accordance with their respective holdings shown on the Depositary’s records. Payments by participants to beneficial owners will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is the case with securities held for the account of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name.” Those payments will be the responsibility of participants and not of the Depositary or us, subject to any statutory or regulatory requirements in effect from time to time. Payment of redemption proceeds, distributions and dividend payments to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of the Depositary, is our responsibility, disbursement of payments to direct participants is the responsibility of the Depositary, and disbursement of payments to the beneficial owners is the responsibility of direct and indirect participants.

Except under the limited circumstances described below, purchasers of securities will not be entitled to have securities registered in their names and will not receive physical delivery of securities. Accordingly, each beneficial owner must rely on the procedures of the Depositary and its participants to exercise any rights under the securities and the indenture.

The laws of some jurisdictions may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of securities in definitive form. Those laws may impair the ability to transfer or pledge beneficial interests in securities.

 

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The Depositary may discontinue providing its services as securities depositary with respect to the securities at any time by giving reasonable notice to us. Under such circumstances, in the event that a successor depositary is not obtained, securities certificates are required to be printed and delivered.

As noted above, beneficial owners of a particular series of securities generally will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in those securities. However, if:

 

   

the Depositary notifies us that it is unwilling or unable to continue as a depositary for the global security or securities representing such series of securities or if the Depositary ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act at a time when it is required to be registered and a successor depositary is not appointed within 90 days of the notification to us or of our becoming aware of the Depositary’s ceasing to be so registered, as the case may be,

 

   

we determine, in our sole discretion, not to have such securities represented by one or more global securities, or

 

   

an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing with respect to such series of securities,

we will prepare and deliver certificates for such securities in exchange for beneficial interests in the global securities. Any beneficial interest in a global security that is exchangeable under the circumstances described in the preceding sentence will be exchangeable for securities in definitive certificated form registered in the names that the Depositary directs. It is expected that these directions will be based upon directions received by the Depositary from its participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the global securities.

Euroclear and Clearstream

If so provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, you may hold interests in a global security through Clearstream Banking S.A. (“Clearstream”) or Euroclear Bank S.A./N.V., as operator of the Euroclear System (“Euroclear”), either directly if you are a participant in Clearstream or Euroclear or indirectly through organizations which are participants in Clearstream or Euroclear. Clearstream and Euroclear will hold interests on behalf of their respective participants through customers’ securities accounts in the names of Clearstream and Euroclear, respectively, on the books of their respective U.S. depositaries, which in turn will hold such interests in customers’ securities accounts in such depositaries’ names on the Depositary’s books.

Clearstream and Euroclear are securities clearance systems in Europe. Clearstream and Euroclear hold securities for their respective participating organizations and facilitate the clearance and settlement of securities transactions between those participants through electronic book-entry changes in their accounts, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of certificates.

Payments, deliveries, transfers, exchanges, notices and other matters relating to beneficial interests in global securities owned through Euroclear or Clearstream must comply with the rules and procedures of those systems. Transactions between participants in Euroclear or Clearstream, on the one hand, and other participants in the Depositary, on the other hand, are also subject to the Depositary’s rules and procedures.

Investors will be able to make and receive through Euroclear and Clearstream payments, deliveries, transfers and other transactions involving any beneficial interests in global securities held through those systems only on days when those systems are open for business. Those systems may not be open for business on days when banks, brokers and other institutions are open for business in the United States.

Cross-market transfers between participants in the Depositary, on the one hand, and participants in Euroclear or Clearstream, on the other hand, will be effected through the Depositary in accordance with the Depositary’s rules on behalf of Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, by their respective U.S. depositaries; however, such cross-market transactions will require delivery of instructions to Euroclear or

 

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Clearstream, as the case may be, by the counterparty in such system in accordance with the rules and procedures and within the established deadlines (European time) of such system. Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, will, if the transaction meets its settlement requirements, deliver instructions to its U.S. depositary to take action to effect final settlement on its behalf by delivering or receiving interests in the global securities through the Depositary, and making or receiving payment in accordance with normal procedures for same-day fund settlement. Participants in Euroclear or Clearstream may not deliver instructions directly to their respective U.S. depositaries.

Due to time zone differences, the securities accounts of a participant in Euroclear or Clearstream purchasing an interest in a global security from a direct participant in the Depositary will be credited, and any such crediting will be reported to the relevant participant in Euroclear or Clearstream, during the securities settlement processing day (which must be a business day for Euroclear or Clearstream) immediately following the settlement date of the Depositary. Cash received in Euroclear or Clearstream as a result of sales of interests in a global security by or through a participant in Euroclear or Clearstream to a direct participant in the Depositary will be received with value on the settlement date of the Depositary but will be available in the relevant Euroclear or Clearstream cash account only as of the business day for Euroclear or Clearstream following the Depositary’s settlement date.

Other

The information in this section of the prospectus concerning the Depositary, Clearstream, Euroclear and their respective book-entry systems has been obtained from sources that we believe to be reliable, but we do not take responsibility for this information. This information has been provided solely as a matter of convenience. The rules and procedures of the Depositary, Clearstream and Euroclear are solely within the control of those organizations and could change at any time. Neither we nor the trustee nor any agent of ours or of the trustee has any control over those entities and none of us takes any responsibility for their activities. You are urged to contact the Depositary, Clearstream and Euroclear or their respective participants directly to discuss those matters. In addition, although we expect that the Depositary, Clearstream and Euroclear will perform the foregoing procedures, none of them is under any obligation to perform or continue to perform such procedures and such procedures may be discontinued at any time. Neither we nor any agent of ours will have any responsibility for the performance or nonperformance by the Depositary, Clearstream and Euroclear or their respective participants of these or any other rules or procedures governing their respective operations.

 

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RESTRICTIONS ON OWNERSHIP AND TRANSFER

The following is a summary of the general terms and provisions of our charter regarding restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our stock. This summary does not purport to be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to our charter. A copy of our charter is filed with the SEC and is incorporated by reference herein. See “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference.”

For us to qualify as a REIT under the Code, our stock must be beneficially owned by 100 or more persons during at least 335 days of a taxable year of twelve months (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made) or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year. Also, not more than 50% of the value of our outstanding shares of stock may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (for this purpose, the term “individual” includes a supplemental unemployment compensation benefit plan, a private foundation or a portion of a trust permanently set aside or used exclusively for charitable purposes, but generally does not include a qualified pension plan or profit sharing trust) during the last half of a taxable year (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made).

Our charter contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our common stock and outstanding capital stock which are intended to assist us in complying with these requirements and continuing to qualify as a REIT, among other purposes. The relevant sections of our charter provide that, subject to the exceptions described below, no person or entity (other than a designated investment entity) may beneficially own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Code, more than 7.0% (by value or by number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of our outstanding common stock (the common stock ownership limit) or 7.0% (by value or by number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of our outstanding capital stock (the aggregate stock ownership limit). No designated investment entity (as defined in our charter) may beneficially own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Code, more than 9.8% (by value or by number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of our outstanding common stock or 9.8% (by value or by number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of our outstanding capital stock. We refer to these restrictions as the “ownership limits.” In addition, different excepted holder ownership limits apply to the family of Kenneth M. Woolley, our Chairman, and certain of his affiliates, family members and estates and trusts formed for the benefit of the foregoing, and Spencer F. Kirk, a director and our former Chief Executive Officer, and certain of his affiliates, family members and estates and trusts formed for the benefit of the foregoing. A person or entity that becomes subject to the ownership limit by virtue of a violative transfer that results in a transfer to a trust, as set forth below, is referred to as a “purported beneficial transferee” if, had the violative transfer been effective, the person or entity would have been a record owner and beneficial owner or solely a beneficial owner of our common stock, or is referred to as a “purported record transferee” if, had the violative transfer been effective, the person or entity would have been solely a record owner of our common stock.

Our charter defines a “designated investment entity” as:

 

   

an entity that is a pension trust that qualifies for look-through treatment under Section 856(h) of the Code;

 

   

an entity that qualifies as a regulated investment company under Section 851 of the Code; or

 

   

an entity that (a) for compensation engages in the business of advising others as to the value of securities or as to the advisability of investing in, purchasing, or selling securities; (b) purchases securities in the ordinary course of its business and not with the purpose or effect of changing or influencing control of us, nor in connection with or as a participant in any transaction having such purpose or effect, including any transaction subject to Rule 13d-3(b) of the Exchange Act; and (c) has or shares voting power and investment power within the meaning of Rule 13d-3(a) under the Exchange Act, so long as such beneficial owner of such entity, or in the case of an investment management

 

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company, the individual account holders of the accounts managed by such entity, would satisfy the 7.0% ownership limit if such beneficial owner or account holder owned directly its proportionate share of the shares held by the entity.

The constructive ownership rules under the Code are complex and may cause stock owned actually or constructively by a group of related individuals and/or entities to be owned constructively by one individual or entity. As a result, the acquisition of less than 7.0% (by value or by number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of our outstanding common stock or 7.0% (by value or by number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of our outstanding capital stock (or the acquisition of an interest in an entity that owns, actually or constructively, our capital stock by an individual or entity), could, nevertheless, cause that individual or entity, or another individual or entity, to own constructively in excess of 7.0% (by value or by number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of our outstanding common stock or 7.0% (by value or by number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of our outstanding capital stock, and thereby violate one or more of the applicable ownership limits.

Our board of directors may, in its sole discretion, waive (prospectively or retroactively) the applicable ownership limit with respect to a particular stockholder if:

 

   

our board of directors obtains such representations and undertakings from such stockholder as are reasonably necessary to ascertain that no person’s beneficial or constructive ownership of our stock will result in our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code or otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT;

 

   

our board of directors determines that such stockholder does not own, and will not own, actually or constructively, an interest in a tenant of ours (or a tenant of any entity owned in whole or in part by us) that would cause us to own, actually or constructively, more than a 9.9% interest (as set forth in Section 856(d)(2)(B) of the Code) in such tenant (or our board of directors determines that revenue derived from such tenant will not affect our ability to qualify as a REIT) and our board of directors obtains such representations and undertakings from such stockholder as are reasonably necessary to ascertain this fact; and

 

   

such stockholder agrees that any violation or attempted violation of such representations or undertakings, or other action which is contrary to the restrictions described herein, will result in such shares of stock being automatically transferred to a charitable trust.

As a condition of our waiver, our board of directors may require an opinion of counsel or an IRS ruling satisfactory to our board of directors with respect to our REIT qualification. Notwithstanding the receipt of any such opinion or ruling, our board of directors may impose such conditions or restrictions as it deems appropriate in connection with granting such waiver.

In connection with the waiver of an ownership limit or at any other time, our board of directors may from time to time increase or decrease the ownership limit for all other persons and entities; provided, however, that any decrease may be made only prospectively as to subsequent holders (other than a decrease as a result of a retroactive change in existing law, in which case the decrease shall be effective immediately); and the ownership limit may not be increased if, after giving effect to such increase, five persons (other than a designated investment entity) could beneficially own or constructively own in the aggregate, more than 49.9% of the value of our shares of capital stock then outstanding. A reduced ownership limit will not apply to any person or entity whose percentage ownership in our common stock or capital stock, as applicable, is in excess of such decreased ownership limit until such time as such person or entity’s percentage of our common stock or our capital stock, as applicable, equals or falls below the decreased ownership limit, but any further acquisition of our common stock or capital stock, as applicable, in excess of such percentage ownership of our common stock or capital stock will be in violation of the ownership limit.

 

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Our charter further prohibits:

 

   

any person from beneficially or constructively owning shares of our stock that would result in our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code or otherwise cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT; and

 

   

any person from transferring shares of our common stock if such transfer would result in shares of our common stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons (determined without reference to any rules of attribution).

Any person who acquires or attempts to acquire beneficial or constructive ownership of shares of our capital stock that will, or may, violate any of the foregoing restrictions on transferability and ownership, will be required to give written notice immediately to us and provide us with such other information as we may request in order to determine the effect of such transfer or attempted transfer on our qualification as a REIT. The foregoing provisions on transferability and ownership will not apply if our board of directors determines that it is no longer in our best interests to attempt to qualify, or to continue to qualify, as a REIT.

Pursuant to our charter, if any transfer of common stock would result in such shares being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons, such transfer will be null and void and the intended transferee will acquire no rights in such shares. In addition, if any purported transfer of our capital stock, or any other event would otherwise result in any person violating the ownership limits, or such other limit as established by our board of directors, or in our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code, or otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT, then that number of shares (rounded up to the nearest whole share) that would cause us to violate such restrictions will be automatically transferred to, and held by, a trust for the exclusive benefit of one or more charitable organizations selected by us and the intended transferees will acquire no rights in such shares. The trustee of the trust will have all of the voting rights and rights to dividends or other distributions with respect to shares held in the trust. These rights will be exercised for the exclusive benefit of the charitable beneficiary. The automatic transfer will be effective as of the close of business on the business day prior to the date of the violative transfer or other event that results in a transfer to the trust. Any dividend or other distribution paid to the purported record transferee, prior to our discovery that the shares had been automatically transferred to a trust as described above, must be repaid to the trustee upon demand for distribution to the beneficiary of the trust. If the transfer to the trust as described above is not automatically effective, for any reason, to prevent the violation, then our charter provides that the transfer of the shares will be null and void and the intended transferee will acquire no rights in such shares.

Shares of our capital stock transferred to the trustee are deemed offered for sale to us, or our designee, at a price per share equal to the lesser of (1) the price paid by the purported record transferee for the shares (or, if the event which resulted in the transfer to the trust did not involve a purchase of such shares of our stock at market price, the last reported sales price on the trading day immediately preceding the day of the event which resulted in the transfer of such shares of our stock to the trust) and (2) the market price on the date we accept, or our designee accepts, such offer. We have the right to accept such offer until the trustee has sold the shares of our capital stock held in the trust pursuant to the clauses discussed below. Upon a sale to us, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares sold terminates and the trustee must distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the purported record transferee and any dividends or other distributions held by the trustee with respect to such capital stock will be paid to the charitable beneficiary.

If we do not buy the shares, the trustee must, within 20 days of receiving notice from us of the transfer of shares to the trust, sell the shares to a person or entity designated by the trustee who could own the shares without violating the ownership limits. After that, the trustee must distribute to the purported record transferee an amount equal to the lesser of (1) the price paid by the purported record transferee for the shares (or, if the event which resulted in the transfer to the trust did not involve a purchase of such shares at market price, the last reported sales price reported on the trading day immediately preceding the relevant date) and (2) the sales proceeds (net of commissions and other expenses of sale) received by the trust for the shares. The purported beneficial transferee or purported record transferee has no rights in the shares held by the trustee.

 

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The trustee shall be designated by us and shall be unaffiliated with us and with any purported record transferee or purported beneficial transferee. Prior to the sale of any shares by the trust, the trustee will receive, in trust for the beneficiary, all dividends and other distributions paid by us with respect to the shares, and may also exercise all voting rights with respect to the shares.

Subject to Maryland law, effective as of the date that the shares have been transferred to the trust, the trustee shall have the authority, at the trustee’s sole discretion:

 

   

to rescind as void any vote cast by a purported record transferee prior to our discovery that the shares have been transferred to the trust; and

 

   

to recast such vote in accordance with the desires of the trustee acting for the benefit of the beneficiary of the trust.

However, if we have already taken irreversible corporate action, then the trustee may not rescind and recast the vote.

Any beneficial owner or constructive owner of shares of our capital stock and any person or entity (including the stockholder of record) who is holding shares of our capital stock for a beneficial owner must, within 30 days after the end of each taxable year, provide us with a completed questionnaire containing the information regarding their ownership of such shares, as set forth in the applicable Treasury Regulations (as defined below). In addition, any person or entity that is a beneficial owner or constructive owner of shares of our capital stock and any person or entity (including the stockholder of record) who is holding shares of our capital stock for a beneficial owner or constructive owner shall, on request, be required to disclose to us in writing such information as we may request in order to determine the effect, if any, of such stockholder’s actual and constructive ownership of shares of our capital stock on our qualification as a REIT and to ensure compliance with the ownership limits, or as otherwise permitted by our board of directors.

All certificates, if any, representing shares of our capital stock bear a legend referring to the restrictions described above.

These ownership limits could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for our stock or otherwise be in the best interests of our stockholders.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF THE

PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT OF EXTRA SPACE STORAGE LP

The following is a summary of the material provisions in the partnership agreement of our Operating Partnership. For more detail, you should refer to the partnership agreement itself, a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. See “Where You Can Find More Information.” For purposes of this section, references to “we,” “our,” “us,” and “our company” refer to Extra Space Storage Inc.

General; Management

Our Operating Partnership was formed on May 5, 2004. As of December 31, 2023, our Operating Partnership had outstanding 7,970,487 common OP units, zero Series A Participating Redeemable Preferred Units (“Series A units”), 1,342,727 Series B Redeemable Preferred Units (“Series B units”), zero Series C Convertible Redeemable Preferred Units (“Series C units”), and 7,551,735 Series D Redeemable Preferred Units (“Series D units”). We collectively refer to the Series A units, Series B units, Series C units and Series D units as “preferred OP units”, and we collectively refer to the common OP units and preferred OP units as “OP units.” We held 95.2% of all outstanding OP units as of December 31, 2023 through two wholly-owned Massachusetts business trusts, one of which is the sole general partner of the Operating Partnership and the other is a limited partner. The remaining 4.8% of the partnership interests were held by other limited partners. Pursuant to the partnership agreement, through our ownership of the Operating Partnership’s sole general partner, we have, subject to certain protective rights of limited partners described below, full, exclusive and complete responsibility and discretion in the management and control of the Operating Partnership, including the ability to cause the operating partnership to enter into certain major transactions, including a merger of the Operating Partnership or a sale of substantially all of its assets.

Our Operating Partnership’s limited partners expressly acknowledged that, as the sole owner of the general partner interests through a wholly-owned Massachusetts business trust, we are acting for the benefit of the Operating Partnership, the limited partners and our stockholders collectively. We are under no obligation to give priority to the separate interests of the limited partners or our stockholders in deciding whether to cause the Operating Partnership to take, or decline to take, any actions.

Management Liability and Indemnification

The general partner and its trustees and officers are not liable to the Operating Partnership for losses sustained, liabilities incurred or benefits not derived as a result of errors in judgment or mistakes of fact or law or of any act or omission, so long as it acted in good faith. The partnership agreement provides for indemnification of us, any of our directors, and both our Operating Partnership’s and our officers or employees and other persons as the general partner may designate from and against all losses, claims, damages, liabilities, expenses, judgments, fines, settlements and other amounts incurred in connection with any actions relating to our Operating Partnership’s operations, as set forth in the partnership agreement (subject to the exceptions described below under “—Fiduciary Responsibilities”).

Fiduciary Responsibilities

Our directors and officers have duties under applicable Maryland law to our company. At the same time, our Operating Partnership’s general partner has fiduciary duties under applicable Delaware law to the Operating Partnership and its limited partners. Our duties, through the general partner, to our Operating Partnership and its limited partners, therefore, may come into conflict with the duties of our directors and officers to our company.

The partnership agreement expressly limits our liability and that of the general partner by providing that we and our officers and directors and the general partner and its officers and trustees are not liable or accountable in

 

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damages to the Operating Partnership, its limited partners or assignees for errors in judgment or mistakes of fact or law or of any act or omission if we or our director or officer acted in good faith. In addition, our Operating Partnership is required to indemnify us, the general partner, a trustee of the general partner, our directors, officers and employees and the directors, officers and employees of our Operating Partnership to the maximum extent permitted by applicable law, against any and all losses, claims, damages, liabilities, expenses, judgments, fines and other actions incurred by our Operating Partnership or the other persons in connection with any actions relating to our Operating Partnership’s operations, provided that our Operating Partnership will not indemnify for willful misconduct or a knowing violation of the law, for any transaction for which the person received an improper personal benefit in violation or breach of any provision of the partnership agreement or, in the case of any criminal proceeding, if the person had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.

Distributions

The partnership agreement provides that holders of OP units are entitled to receive quarterly distributions of available cash as follows:

(1) first, to holders of Series A units (a) pro rata in proportion to their respective percentage interests, an amount equal to a fixed priority return of 2.3% on a stated amount of $101.7 million, and (b) the distributions that holders of Series A units would be entitled to receive if the Series A units were treated as part of a single class of units with common OP units and the Series A units shared in distribution with the common OP units pursuant to clause (4) below proportionately based on the total aggregate number of outstanding Series A units and common OP units;

(2) second, (a) to holders of Series B units pro rata in proportion to their respective percentage interests, an amount equal to a fixed priority return of 6.0% on a stated amount of $25.00 per Series B unit, (b) to holders of Series C units pro rata in proportion to their respective percentage interests, a priority quarterly return per unit equal to the average quarterly distribution payable in respect of such Series C units during the four consecutive fiscal quarters prior to the fifth anniversary of the date of issuance of such units, and (c) to holders of Series D units pro rata in proportion to their respective percentage interests, an amount equal to a fixed priority return, the rate of which will be established by the operating partnership and the holders of such Series D units upon issuance thereof;

(3) third, with respect to any OP units that are entitled to any preference, other than the preferred OP units, in accordance with their respective percentage interests; and

(4) fourth, with respect to any OP units that are not entitled to any preference in distribution, in accordance with the rights of such class of OP unit (and, within such class, pro rata in accordance with their respective percentage interests).

Allocations of Net Income and Net Loss

Net income and net loss of our Operating Partnership are determined and allocated with respect to each fiscal year of our Operating Partnership as of the end of the year. Except as otherwise provided in the partnership agreement, an allocation of a share of net income or net loss is treated as an allocation of the same share of each item of income, gain, loss or deduction that is taken into account in computing net income or net loss. Please see “U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences—Taxation of Our Company—Tax Aspects of Our Operating Partnership, the Subsidiary Partnerships and the Limited Liability Companies—Allocations of Items of Income, Gain, Loss and Deduction” for a summary of certain provisions in the partnership agreement relating to allocations of partnership income and loss. Except as otherwise provided in the partnership agreement, for U.S. federal income tax purposes under the Code and the Treasury Regulations, each Operating Partnership item of income, gain, loss and deduction is allocated among the Operating Partnership’s limited partners in the same manner as its correlative item of book income, gain, loss or deduction is allocated pursuant to the partnership agreement.

 

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Redemption Rights

After the first anniversary of becoming a holder of common OP units, each of the limited partners of our Operating Partnership has the right, subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the partnership agreement, to require our Operating Partnership to redeem all or a portion of the common OP units held by the party in exchange for a cash amount equal to the value of its common OP units, unless the terms of such common OP units or a separate agreement entered into between our Operating Partnership and the holder of such OP units provide that they are not entitled to a right of redemption. On or before the close of business on (1) the tenth business day with respect to redemptions effected by any limited partner who was a limited partner as of September 30, 2013, with respect to the OP units held by such limited partner as of September 30, 2013 or redemptions that qualify as a “private transfer” (including a “block transfer”) under Treasury Regulations Section 1.7704-1(e), as determined by us in our sole discretion or (2) the sixty-first day with respect to all other redemptions, after our Operating Partnership receives a notice of redemption, we may, in our sole and absolute discretion, but subject to the restrictions on the ownership of our common stock imposed under our charter and the transfer restrictions and other limitations thereof, elect to acquire some or all of the tendered common OP units from the tendering holder in exchange for shares of our common stock, based on an exchange ratio of one share of our common stock for each common OP unit (subject to antidilution adjustments provided in the partnership agreement).

Each holder of Series A units has the right, subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the partnership agreement or in any separate agreement that provides otherwise, to require our Operating Partnership to redeem all or a portion of its Series A units in exchange for a cash amount equal to, per Series A unit, the sum of (1) $101.7 million divided by the total number of Series A units outstanding, (2) any unpaid distributions with respect to such Series A unit and (3) the average closing price of our common stock on the NYSE for the ten consecutive trading days prior to the date of determination, multiplied by a factor that is adjusted for stock dividends, splits (reverse or otherwise) or subdivisions, which sum we refer to as the Series A unit redemption amount. We may, in our sole and absolute discretion, but subject to the restrictions on the ownership of our common stock imposed under our charter and the transfer restrictions and other limitations thereof, elect to acquire some or all of the tendered Series A units from the tendering holder in exchange for the number of shares of our common stock equal to the Series A unit redemption amount divided by the average closing price of our common stock on the NYSE for the ten consecutive trading days prior to the date of determination.

After the first anniversary of the date of issuance, each holder of Series B units, Series C units or Series D units has the right, subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the partnership agreement or in any separate agreement that provides otherwise, to require our Operating Partnership to redeem all or a portion of such units in exchange for a cash redemption amount equal to: (1) for each Series B unit, the sum of (a) $25.00 and (b) any unpaid distributions with respect to such Series B unit; (2) for each Series C unit, the sum of (a) $42.10 and (b) any unpaid distributions with respect to such Series C unit; and (3) for each Series D unit, the sum of (a) $25.00 and (b) any unpaid distributions with respect to such Series D unit. We may, in our sole and absolute discretion, but subject to the restrictions on the ownership of our common stock imposed under our charter and the transfer restrictions and other limitations thereof, elect to acquire some or all of the tendered Series B units, Series C units or Series D units from the tendering holder in exchange for the number of shares of our common stock equal to the applicable redemption amount divided by the average closing price of our common stock on the NYSE for the ten consecutive trading days prior to the date of determination.

Transferability of OP Units

In general, the general partner may not voluntarily withdraw from our Operating Partnership or transfer all or a portion of its interest in our Operating Partnership unless the holders of limited partnership interests entitled to vote consent by approval of a majority in interest or immediately after a merger of us into another entity or the sale of all or substantially all of our assets. With certain limited exceptions, the limited partners may not transfer their interests, in whole or in part, without the written consent of the general partner, which consent may be withheld in the general partner’s sole discretion.

 

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Issuance of OP Units or Our Stock

We, through our ownership of our Operating Partnership’s sole general partner, have the ability to cause our Operating Partnership to issue additional partnership interests in the form of OP units. These additional OP units may include preference terms with provisions and rights that are preferential to those of common OP units. However, so long as any preferred OP units remain issued and outstanding, our Operating Partnership may not (1) (a) authorize or issue any securities, (b) reclassify any OP units into interests or (c) authorize or issue any debt convertible into or exchangeable for OP units, in the case of Series A units, having any preference as to or on parity with the dividend or redemption rights, liquidation preferences, conversion rights, voting rights or any other rights or privileges of the Series A units, and in the case of Series B units, Series C units and Series D units, having any preference as to the dividend or redemption rights, liquidation preferences, conversion rights, voting rights or any other rights or privileges of such units (other than additional Series A units in accordance with the partnership agreement), or (2) amend or repeal any provision of, or add any provision to the partnership agreement if such actions would alter or change the preferences, rights, privileges or restrictions provided for the benefit of the preferred OP units that remain issued and outstanding.

In addition, upon the issuance of our stock other than in connection with a redemption of OP units, we will generally be obligated to contribute or cause to be contributed the cash proceeds or other consideration received from the issuance to our Operating Partnership in exchange for, in the case of common stock, OP units, or in the case of an issuance of preferred stock, preferred OP units with designations, preferences and other rights, terms and provisions that are substantially the same as the designations, preferences and other rights, terms and provisions of the preferred stock.

Tax Matters

Pursuant to the partnership agreement, the general partner is the Operating Partnership’s tax matters partner. Accordingly, through our role as the owner of the general partner, we have the authority to handle or cause to be handled tax audits and to make or cause to be made tax elections under the Code on the Operating Partnership’s behalf.

Term

The term of the Operating Partnership commenced on May 5, 2004 and will continue until December 31, 2104, unless one of the following events takes place:

 

   

the general partner’s bankruptcy, judicial dissolution or withdrawal (unless, in the case of a bankruptcy or withdrawal, a majority-in-interest of the remaining limited partners agree to continue the Operating Partnership and to the appointment of a successor general partner);

 

   

the sale or other disposition of all or substantially all of the Operating Partnership’s assets;

 

   

redemption (or acquisition by the general partner) of all OP units other than OP units held by the general partner or us;

 

   

an election by the general partner in its capacity as the Operating Partnership’s sole general partner;

 

   

an entry of decree of judicial dissolution of the Operating Partnership pursuant to Delaware law; or

 

   

the incapacity of the general partner, unless all of the remaining partners agree in writing to continue the Operating Partnership and to the appointment of a substitute general partner.

Upon the occurrence of any of the foregoing events, and subject to the terms of the partnership agreement regarding the payment of liabilities, after any appropriate allocation of net income and net loss, distributions to the partners of our Operating Partnership will be made (1) first to the holders of Series A units (and proportionately among those holders) in an amount equal to the Series A unit redemption amount for each Series

 

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A unit, (2) second to the holders of Series B units, Series C units and Series D units (and proportionately among those holders) in an amount equal to the applicable redemption amount for each such unit and (3) thereafter to the holders of other OP units. However, the voluntary sale, conveyance, lease, exchange or transfer (for cash, shares of stock, securities or other consideration) of all or substantially all of the property or assets of the Operating Partnership to, or the consolidation or merger or other business combination of the Operating Partnership with or into, any corporation, trust or other entity (or of any corporation, trust or other entity with or into the Operating Partnership) will not be deemed to constitute a liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of the Operating Partnership for these purposes.

 

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CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OF OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

The following summary of certain provisions of Maryland law and of our charter and bylaws is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to Maryland law and to our charter and bylaws, copies of which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”

Our Board of Directors

Our charter and bylaws provide that the number of directors of our company may be established by our board of directors but may not be fewer than the minimum number permitted under the MGCL nor more than 15. Except as may be provided by our board of directors in setting the terms of any class or series of preferred stock, any vacancy may be filled, at any regular meeting or at any special meeting called for that purpose, only by a majority of the remaining directors, even if the remaining directors do not constitute a quorum, and the director elected to fill the vacancy will serve for the remainder of the full term of the directorship in which the vacancy occurred and until a successor is elected and qualifies.

Each of our directors is elected by our common stockholders entitled to vote to serve until the next annual meeting and until their successors are duly elected and qualify. Pursuant to our bylaws, directors in uncontested elections are elected upon the affirmative vote of a majority of the total votes cast for and against such nominee at a duly called meeting of stockholders, and directors in contested elections are elected by a plurality of all of the votes cast. In both uncontested and contested elections, holders of shares of our common stock have no right to cumulative voting in the election of directors. Consequently, at each annual meeting of stockholders, the holders of a majority of the shares of our common stock entitled to vote will be able to elect all of our directors (subject to the rights of our preferred stock and any other class or series of stock to elect directors).

Removal of Directors

Our charter provides that, subject to the rights of holders of one or more classes or series of preferred stock to elect or remove one or more directors, a director may be removed only for cause (as defined in our charter) and only by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes of stockholders entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors. This provision, when coupled with the exclusive power of our board of directors to fill vacant directorships, precludes stockholders from removing incumbent directors except upon the existence of cause for removal and a substantial affirmative vote, and filling the vacancies created by such removal with their own nominees.

Business Combinations

Under the MGCL, certain “business combinations” (including a merger, consolidation, statutory share exchange or, in certain circumstances, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities) between a Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder (i.e., any person who beneficially owns, directly or indirectly, 10% or more of the voting power of the corporation’s outstanding voting stock or an affiliate or associate of the corporation who, at any time within the two-year period immediately prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner, directly or indirectly, of 10% or more of the voting power of the then outstanding stock of the corporation) or an affiliate of such an interested stockholder are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Thereafter, any such business combination must be recommended by the board of directors of such corporation and approved by the affirmative vote of at least (1) 80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding shares of voting stock of the corporation and (2) two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of voting stock of the corporation other than shares held by the interested stockholder with whom (or with whose affiliate) the business combination is to be effected or held by an affiliate or associate of the interested stockholder, unless, among other conditions, the corporation’s common stockholders receive a minimum price (as defined in the MGCL) for

 

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their shares and the consideration is received in cash or in the same form as previously paid by the interested stockholder for its shares. A person is not an interested stockholder under the statute if the board of directors approved in advance the transaction by which the person otherwise would have become an interested stockholder. Our board of directors may provide that its approval is subject to compliance with any terms and conditions determined by it.

These provisions of the MGCL do not apply, however, to business combinations that are approved or exempted by a board of directors prior to the time that the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Pursuant to the statute, our board of directors has by resolution exempted Kenneth M. Woolley, his affiliates and associates and all persons acting in concert with the foregoing, and Spencer F. Kirk, his affiliates and associates and all persons acting in concert with the foregoing, from these provisions of the MGCL and, consequently, the five-year prohibition and the supermajority vote requirements will not apply to business combinations between us and any person described above. As a result, any person described above may be able to enter into business combinations with us that may not be in the best interests of our stockholders without compliance by our company with the supermajority vote requirements and the other provisions of the statute.

Control Share Acquisitions

The MGCL provides that holders of “control shares” of a Maryland corporation acquired in a “control share acquisition” have no voting rights with respect to the control shares except to the extent approved at a special meeting by the affirmative vote of two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, excluding shares of stock in a corporation in respect of which any of the following persons is entitled to exercise or direct the exercise of the voting power of shares of stock of the corporation in the election of directors: (1) a person who makes or proposes to make a control share acquisition, (2) an officer of the corporation or (3) an employee of the corporation who is also a director of the corporation. “Control shares” are voting shares of stock which, if aggregated with all other such shares of stock owned by the acquirer or in respect of which the acquirer is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power (except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy), would entitle the acquirer to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of the following ranges of voting power: (a) one-tenth or more but less than one-third, (b) one-third or more but less than a majority, or (c) a majority or more of all voting power. Control shares do not include shares the acquiring person is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained stockholder approval. A “control share acquisition” means the acquisition of issued and outstanding control shares, subject to certain exceptions.

A person who has made, or proposes to make, a control share acquisition, upon satisfaction of certain conditions (including an undertaking to pay expenses), may compel our board of directors to call a special meeting of stockholders to be held within 50 days of demand and undertaking to pay expenses to consider the voting rights of the shares. If no request for a meeting is made, the corporation may itself present the question at any stockholders meeting.

If voting rights are not approved at the meeting or if the acquiring person does not deliver an acquiring person statement as required by the statute, then, subject to certain conditions and limitations, the corporation may redeem any or all of the control shares (except those for which voting rights have previously been approved) for fair value determined, without regard to the absence of voting rights for the control shares, as of the date of any meeting of stockholders at which the voting rights of such shares are considered and not approved or, if no such meeting is held, as of the date of the last control share acquisition by the acquiror. If voting rights for control shares are approved at a stockholders meeting and the acquirer becomes entitled to vote a majority of the shares entitled to vote, all other stockholders may exercise appraisal rights. The fair value of the shares as determined for purposes of such appraisal rights may not be less than the highest price per share paid by the acquirer in the control share acquisition.

The control share acquisition statute does not apply (1) to shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or statutory share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction or (2) to acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation.

 

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Our bylaws contain a provision exempting from the control share acquisition statute any and all acquisitions by any person of our stock. There can be no assurance that such provision will not be amended or eliminated at any time in the future.

Other Takeover Defense Provisions of Maryland Law

Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act and with at least three independent directors to elect to be subject by provision in its charter or bylaws or a resolution of its board of directors and notwithstanding any contrary provision in the charter or bylaws, to any or all of five provisions:

 

   

a classified board;

 

   

a two-thirds vote requirement to remove a director;

 

   

a requirement that the number of directors be fixed only by the vote of the directors;

 

   

a requirement that a vacancy on the board be filled only by the remaining directors and for the remainder of the full term of class of directors in which the vacancy occurred and until a successor is elected and qualifies; and

 

   

a majority requirement for the calling of a stockholder-requested special meeting of stockholders.

Pursuant to Subtitle 8, we have elected to provide that vacancies on our board may be filled only by the remaining directors and for the remainder of the full term of the directorship in which the vacancy occurred. Through provisions in our charter and bylaws unrelated to Subtitle 8, we already (1) require the affirmative vote of the stockholders entitled to cast not less than two-thirds of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter for the removal of any director from the board, which removal is only allowed for cause and (2) require the written request of stockholders entitled to cast not less than a majority of all votes entitled to be cast at such meeting to call a special meeting of our stockholders, unless such meeting is called by our chairman of the board, our president, our chief executive officer or the board.

Amendment to Our Charter and Bylaws

Except for amendments relating to removal of directors and the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock and amendments relating to the vote required to amend these provisions (which each require the affirmative vote of the stockholders entitled to cast not less than two-thirds of all the votes entitled to be cast on the matter), our charter may be amended only if declared advisable by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of the stockholders entitled to cast not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.

Our board of directors has the power to adopt, alter or repeal any provision of our bylaws and to make new bylaws. Additionally, our bylaws may be amended by stockholders by the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.

Dissolution of Our Company

The dissolution of our company must be declared advisable by a majority of our entire board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of the stockholders entitled to cast not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.

Proxy Access

Our bylaws include provisions permitting, subject to certain eligibility, procedural and disclosure requirements, qualifying stockholders, or a qualifying group of no more than 20 stockholders, who have

 

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maintained continuous ownership of at least 3% of our outstanding shares of common stock for at least three years to require us to include in our proxy materials for an annual meeting of stockholders a number of director nominees constituting up to 20% of the number of directors serving on our board of directors (rounded down to the nearest whole number, but not less than one).

Advance Notice of Director Nominations and New Business

Our bylaws provide that with respect to an annual meeting of stockholders, nominations of individuals for election to our board of directors and the proposal of business to be considered by stockholders may be made only (1) pursuant to our notice of the meeting, (2) by or at the direction of our board of directors or (3) by a stockholder who was a stockholder of record both at the time of giving of notice and at the time of the annual meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of directors or on the proposal of other business, as the case may be, and who has complied with the advance notice procedures set forth in our bylaws.

With respect to special meetings of stockholders, only the business specified in our notice of meeting may be brought before the meeting. Nominations of individuals for election to our board of directors may be made only (1) pursuant to our notice of the meeting, (2) by or at the direction of our board of directors or (3) provided that our board of directors has determined that directors shall be elected at such meeting, by a stockholder who was a stockholder of record both at the time of giving of notice and at the time of the special meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who has complied with the advance notice provisions set forth in our bylaws.

Generally, under our bylaws, a stockholder seeking to nominate a director or bring other business before our annual meeting of stockholders must deliver a notice to our secretary not later than 5:00 p.m., Mountain Time, on the 120th day, nor earlier than the 150th day, prior to the first anniversary of the date of the proxy statement for the prior year’s annual meeting. In addition, a stockholder seeking to nominate a director at a special meeting of stockholders must deliver notice to our secretary not earlier than the 150th day prior to such special meeting nor later than 5:00 p.m., Mountain Time, on the later of the 120th day prior to such special meeting or the tenth day following the day on which public announcement is first made of the date of the special meeting and of the nominees proposed by our board of directors to be elected at such meeting. For a stockholder seeking to nominate a candidate for our board of directors, the notice must describe various matters regarding the nominee, including name, address, occupation and number of shares held, and other specified matters. For a stockholder seeking to propose other business, the notice must include a description of the proposed business, the reasons for the proposal and other specified matters.

Anti-Takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws

Our charter and bylaws and Maryland law contain provisions that may delay, defer or prevent a change of control or other transaction that might involve a premium price for our stock or otherwise be in the best interests of our stockholders, including business combination provisions, supermajority vote and cause requirements for removal of directors and advance notice requirements for director nominations and stockholder proposals. Likewise, if the provision in the bylaws opting out of the control share acquisition provisions of the MGCL were rescinded, these provisions of the MGCL could have similar anti-takeover effects.

Indemnification and Limitation of Directors’ and Officers’ Liability

Maryland law permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision limiting the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages except for liability resulting from (1) actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or (2) active and deliberate dishonesty established by a final judgment and which is material to the cause of action. Our charter contains such a provision which eliminates such liability to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.

The MGCL requires a corporation (unless its charter provides otherwise, which our company’s charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any

 

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proceeding to which he or she is made, or threatened to be made, a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity. The MGCL permits a corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made, or threatened to be made, a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that:

 

   

the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and (1) was committed in bad faith or (2) was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;

 

   

the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or

 

   

in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.

However, under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation may not indemnify for an adverse judgment in a suit by or in the right of the corporation or for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, unless in either case a court orders indemnification and then only for expenses. In addition, the MGCL permits a corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon the corporation’s receipt of:

 

   

a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by the corporation; and

 

   

a written undertaking by him or her or on his or her behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by the corporation if it is ultimately determined that the standard of conduct was not met.

Our charter authorizes us to obligate us and our bylaws obligate us, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law in effect from time to time, to indemnify and, without requiring a preliminary determination of the ultimate entitlement to indemnification, pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding to:

 

   

any present or former director or officer who is made, or threatened to be made, a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity; or

 

   

any individual who, while a director or officer of our company and at our request, serves or has served as a director, officer, partner or trustee of another corporation, REIT, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise and who is made, or threatened to be made, a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity.

Our charter and bylaws also permit us, with the approval of our board of directors, to indemnify and advance expenses to any person who served a predecessor of ours in any of the capacities described above and to any employee or agent of our company or a predecessor of our company.

The partnership agreement provides that we and our officers and directors are indemnified to the maximum extent permitted by law. See “Description of the Partnership Agreement of Extra Space Storage LP—Management Liability and Indemnification.”

We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our directors and executive officers. The indemnification agreements require, among other matters, that we indemnify our directors and executive officers to the maximum extent permitted by law and advance to the directors and executive officers all related expenses, subject to reimbursement if it is subsequently determined that indemnification is not permitted. Under these agreements, we must also indemnify and advance all expenses incurred by directors and executive officers seeking to enforce their rights under the indemnification agreements and may cover directors and executive officers under our directors’ and officers’ liability insurance. Although indemnification agreements offer substantially the same scope of coverage afforded under the bylaws, they provide greater assurance to directors and executive officers that indemnification will be available, because, as contracts, they cannot be modified unilaterally in the future by the board of directors to eliminate the rights they provide.

 

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Insofar as the foregoing provisions permit indemnification of directors, officers or persons controlling us for liability arising under the Securities Act, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC, this indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

REIT Qualification

Our charter provides that our board of directors may revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election, without approval of our stockholders, if it determines that it is no longer in our best interests to continue to qualify as a REIT.

 

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U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSEQUENCES

The following is a general summary of material U.S. federal income tax considerations relating to our qualification and taxation as a REIT and the purchase, ownership and disposition of our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities. Supplemental U.S. federal income tax considerations relevant to holders of the securities offered by this prospectus may be provided in the prospectus supplement that relates to those securities. For purposes of this discussion, references to “we,” “our” and “us” mean only Extra Space Storage Inc., and do not include any of its subsidiaries, except as otherwise indicated. This summary is for general information only and is not tax advice. The information in this summary is based on:

 

   

the Code;

 

   

current, temporary and proposed Treasury regulations promulgated under the Code (the “Treasury Regulations”);

 

   

the legislative history of the Code;

 

   

administrative interpretations and practices of the IRS; and

 

   

court decisions;

in each case, as of the date of this prospectus. In addition, the administrative interpretations and practices of the IRS include its practices and policies as expressed in private letter rulings that are not binding on the IRS except with respect to the particular taxpayers who requested and received those rulings. The sections of the Code and the corresponding Treasury Regulations that relate to qualification and taxation as a REIT are highly technical and complex. The following discussion sets forth certain material aspects of the sections of the Code that govern the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a REIT and its stockholders. This summary is qualified in its entirety by the applicable Code provisions, Treasury Regulations, and administrative and judicial interpretations thereof. Potential tax reforms may result in significant changes to the rules governing U.S. federal income taxation. New legislation, Treasury Regulations, administrative interpretations and practices and/or court decisions may significantly and adversely affect our ability to qualify as a REIT, the U.S. federal income tax consequences of such qualification, or the U.S. federal income tax consequences of an investment in our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities, including those described in this discussion. Moreover, the law relating to the tax treatment of other entities, or an investment in other entities, could change, making an investment in such other entities more attractive relative to an investment in a REIT. Any such changes could apply retroactively to transactions preceding the date of the change. We have not requested, and do not plan to request, any rulings from the IRS that we qualify as a REIT, and the statements in this prospectus are not binding on the IRS or any court. Thus, we can provide no assurance that the tax considerations contained in this discussion will not be challenged by the IRS or will be sustained by a court if challenged by the IRS. This summary does not discuss any state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences, or any tax consequences arising under any U.S. federal tax laws other than U.S. federal income tax laws, associated with the purchase, ownership or disposition of our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities, or our election to be taxed as a REIT.

You are urged to consult your tax advisor regarding the tax consequences to you of:

 

   

the purchase, ownership and disposition of our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities, including the U.S. federal, state, local, non-U.S. and other tax consequences;

 

   

our election to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes; and

 

   

potential changes in applicable tax laws.

Taxation of Our Company

General

We elected to be taxed as a REIT under Sections 856 through 860 of the Code commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2004. We believe that we have been organized and have operated in a manner that has

 

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allowed us to qualify for taxation as a REIT under the Code commencing with such taxable year, and we intend to continue to be organized and operate in this manner. However, qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Code, including through actual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that we have been organized and have operated, or will continue to be organized and operate, in a manner so as to qualify or remain qualified as a REIT. See “—Failure to Qualify” for potential tax consequences if we fail to qualify as a REIT.

Latham & Watkins LLP has acted as our tax counsel in connection with this prospectus and our election to be taxed as a REIT. Latham & Watkins LLP has rendered an opinion to us, as of the date of this prospectus, to the effect that, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2004, we have been organized and have operated in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code, and our proposed method of operation will enable us to continue to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code. It must be emphasized that this opinion was based on various assumptions and representations as to factual matters, including representations made by us in a factual certificate provided by one of our officers. In addition, this opinion was based upon our factual representations set forth in this prospectus. Moreover, our qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Code, which are discussed below, including through actual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership, the results of which have not been and will not be reviewed by Latham & Watkins LLP. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that our actual results of operations for any particular taxable year have satisfied or will satisfy those requirements. Further, the anticipated U.S. federal income tax treatment described herein may be changed, perhaps retroactively, by legislative, administrative or judicial action at any time. Latham & Watkins LLP has no obligation to update its opinion subsequent to the date of such opinion.

Provided we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we generally will not be required to pay U.S. federal corporate income taxes on our REIT taxable income that is currently distributed to our stockholders. This treatment substantially eliminates the “double taxation” that ordinarily results from investment in a C corporation. A C corporation is a corporation that generally is required to pay tax at the corporate level. Double taxation means taxation once at the corporate level when income is earned and once again at the stockholder level when the income is distributed. We will, however, be required to pay U.S. federal income tax as follows:

 

   

First, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on any undistributed REIT taxable income, including undistributed capital gain.

 

   

Second, if we have (1) net income from the sale or other disposition of “foreclosure property” held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business or (2) other nonqualifying income from foreclosure property, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on this income. To the extent that income from foreclosure property is otherwise qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, this tax is not applicable. Subject to certain other requirements, foreclosure property generally is defined as property we acquired through foreclosure or after a default on a loan secured by the property or a lease of the property.

 

   

Third, we will be required to pay a 100% tax on any net income from prohibited transactions. Prohibited transactions are, in general, sales or other taxable dispositions of property, other than foreclosure property, held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business.

 

   

Fourth, if we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, as described below, but have otherwise maintained our qualification as a REIT because certain other requirements are met, we will be required to pay a tax equal to (1) the greater of (A) the amount by which we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test and (B) the amount by which we fail to satisfy the 95% gross income test, multiplied by (2) a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.

 

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Fifth, if we fail to satisfy any of the asset tests (other than a de minimis failure of the 5% or 10% asset test), as described below, due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, and we nonetheless maintain our REIT qualification because of specified cure provisions, we will be required to pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate multiplied by the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets that caused us to fail such test.

 

   

Sixth, if we fail to satisfy any provision of the Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT (other than a violation of the gross income tests or certain violations of the asset tests, as described below) and the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, we may retain our REIT qualification but we will be required to pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure.

 

   

Seventh, we will be required to pay a 4% excise tax to the extent we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of (1) 85% of our ordinary income for the year, (2) 95% of our capital gain net income for the year, and (3) any undistributed taxable income from prior periods.

 

   

Eighth, if we acquire any asset from a corporation that is or has been a C corporation in a transaction in which our tax basis in the asset is less than the fair market value of the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset, and we subsequently recognize gain on the disposition of the asset during the five-year period beginning on the date on which we acquired the asset, then we generally will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on this gain to the extent of the excess of (1) the fair market value of the asset over (2) our adjusted tax basis in the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset. The results described in this paragraph with respect to the recognition of gain assume that the C corporation will refrain from making an election to receive different treatment under applicable Treasury Regulations on its tax return for the year in which we acquire the asset from the C corporation. Under applicable Treasury Regulations, any gain from the sale of property we acquired in an exchange under Section 1031 (a like-kind exchange) or Section 1033 (an involuntary conversion) of the Code generally is excluded from the application of this built-in gains tax.

 

   

Ninth, our subsidiaries that are C corporations and are not qualified REIT subsidiaries, including our “taxable REIT subsidiaries” described below, generally will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on their earnings.

 

   

Tenth, we will be required to pay a 100% tax on any “redetermined rents,” “redetermined deductions,” “excess interest” or “redetermined TRS service income,” as described below under “—Penalty Tax.” In general, redetermined rents are rents from real property that are overstated as a result of services furnished to any of our tenants by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours. Redetermined deductions and excess interest generally represent amounts that are deducted by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours for amounts paid to us that are in excess of the amounts that would have been deducted based on arm’s length negotiations. Redetermined TRS service income generally represents income of a taxable REIT subsidiary that is understated as a result of services provided to us or on our behalf.

 

   

Eleventh, we may elect to retain and pay income tax on our net capital gain. In that case, a stockholder would include its proportionate share of our undistributed capital gain (to the extent we make a timely designation of such gain to the stockholder) in its income, would be deemed to have paid the tax that we paid on such gain, and would be allowed a credit for its proportionate share of the tax deemed to have been paid, and an adjustment would be made to increase the tax basis of the stockholder in our capital stock.

 

   

Twelfth, if we fail to comply with the requirement to send annual letters to our stockholders holding at least a certain percentage of our stock, as determined under applicable Treasury Regulations, requesting information regarding the actual ownership of our stock, and the failure is not due to reasonable cause or is due to willful neglect, we will be subject to a $25,000 penalty, or if the failure is intentional, a $50,000 penalty.

 

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We and our subsidiaries may be subject to a variety of taxes other than U.S. federal income tax, including payroll taxes and state and local income, property and other taxes on our assets and operations.

Requirements for Qualification as a REIT. The Code defines a REIT as a corporation, trust or association:

 

  (1)

that is managed by one or more trustees or directors;

 

  (2)

that issues transferable shares or transferable certificates to evidence its beneficial ownership;

 

  (3)

that would be taxable as a domestic corporation, but for Sections 856 through 860 of the Code;

 

  (4)

that is not a financial institution or an insurance company within the meaning of certain provisions of the Code;

 

  (5)

that is beneficially owned by 100 or more persons;

 

  (6)

not more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of which is owned, actually or constructively, by five or fewer individuals, including certain specified entities, during the last half of each taxable year; and

 

  (7)

that meets other tests, described below, regarding the nature of its income and assets and the amount of its distributions.

The Code provides that conditions (1) to (4), inclusive, must be met during the entire taxable year and that condition (5) must be met during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less than 12 months. Conditions (5) and (6) do not apply until after the first taxable year for which an election is made to be taxed as a REIT. For purposes of condition (6), the term “individual” includes a supplemental unemployment compensation benefit plan, a private foundation or a portion of a trust permanently set aside or used exclusively for charitable purposes, but generally does not include a qualified pension plan or profit sharing trust.

We believe that we have been organized and have operated in a manner that has allowed us, and will continue to allow us, to satisfy conditions (1) through (7), inclusive, during the relevant time periods. In addition, our charter provides for restrictions regarding ownership and transfer of our shares that are intended to assist us in continuing to satisfy the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. A description of the share ownership and transfer restrictions relating to our capital stock is contained in the discussion in this prospectus under the heading “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.” These restrictions, however, do not ensure that we have previously satisfied, and may not ensure that we will, in all cases, be able to continue to satisfy, the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. If we fail to satisfy these share ownership requirements, then, except as provided in the next sentence, our status as a REIT will terminate. If, however, we comply with the rules contained in applicable Treasury Regulations that require us to ascertain the actual ownership of our shares and we do not know, or would not have known through the exercise of reasonable diligence, that we failed to meet the requirement described in condition (6) above, we will be treated as having met this requirement. See “—Failure to Qualify.”

In addition, we may not maintain our status as a REIT unless our taxable year is the calendar year. We have and will continue to have a calendar taxable year.

Ownership of Interests in Partnerships, Limited Liability Companies and Qualified REIT Subsidiaries. In the case of a REIT that is a partner in a partnership (for purposes of this discussion, references to “partnership” include a limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and references to “partner” include a member in such limited liability company), Treasury Regulations provide that the REIT will be deemed to own its proportionate share of the assets of the partnership based on its interest in partnership capital, subject to special rules relating to the 10% asset test described below. Also, the REIT will be deemed to be entitled to its proportionate share of the income of that entity. The assets and gross income of the partnership

 

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retain the same character in the hands of the REIT for purposes of Section 856 of the Code, including satisfying the gross income tests and the asset tests. Thus, our pro rata share of the assets and items of income of our operating partnership, including our operating partnership’s share of these items of any partnership or disregarded entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes in which it owns an interest, is treated as our assets and items of income for purposes of applying the requirements described in this discussion, including the gross income and asset tests described below. A brief summary of the rules governing the U.S. federal income taxation of partnerships is set forth below in “—Tax Aspects of Our Operating Partnership, the Subsidiary Partnerships and the Limited Liability Companies.”

We have control of our operating partnership and most of its subsidiary partnerships and intend to operate them in a manner consistent with the requirements for our qualification as a REIT. We are an indirect limited partner or non-managing member in some of the subsidiary partnerships. If a partnership in which we directly or indirectly own an interest takes or expects to take actions that could jeopardize our status as a REIT or require us to pay tax, we may be forced to dispose of our interest in such entity. In addition, it is possible that a partnership could take an action which could cause us to fail a gross income or asset test, and that we would not become aware of such action in time to dispose of our interest in the partnership or take other corrective action on a timely basis. In such a case, we could fail to qualify as a REIT unless we were entitled to relief, as described below.

We may from time to time own and operate certain properties through wholly-owned subsidiaries that we intend to be treated as “qualified REIT subsidiaries” under the Code. A corporation (or other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) will qualify as our qualified REIT subsidiary if we own 100% of the corporation’s outstanding stock and do not elect with the subsidiary to treat it as a “taxable REIT subsidiary,” as described below. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not treated as a separate corporation, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of a qualified REIT subsidiary are treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the parent REIT for all purposes under the Code, including all REIT qualification tests. Thus, in applying the U.S. federal income tax requirements described in this discussion, any qualified REIT subsidiaries we own are ignored, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of such corporations are treated as our assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not subject to U.S. federal income tax, and our ownership of the stock of a qualified REIT subsidiary will not violate the restrictions on ownership of securities, as described below under “—Asset Tests.” This treatment also applies to other subsidiaries of a REIT that are treated as corporations for U.S. federal income tax purposes, such as the business trusts we own.

Ownership of Interests in Taxable REIT Subsidiaries. We currently hold an interest in a number of taxable REIT subsidiaries, and we may acquire securities in additional taxable REIT subsidiaries in the future. A taxable REIT subsidiary is a corporation (or other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) other than a REIT in which a REIT directly or indirectly holds stock, and that has made a joint election with such REIT to be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. If a taxable REIT subsidiary owns more than 35% of the total voting power or value of the outstanding securities of another corporation, such other corporation will also be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. Other than some activities relating to lodging and health care facilities, a taxable REIT subsidiary may generally engage in any business, including the provision of customary or non-customary services to tenants of its parent REIT. A taxable REIT subsidiary is subject to U.S. federal income tax as a regular C corporation. A REIT is not treated as holding the assets of a taxable REIT subsidiary or as receiving any income that the taxable REIT subsidiary earns. Rather, the stock issued by the taxable REIT subsidiary is an asset in the hands of the REIT, and the REIT generally recognizes as income the dividends, if any, that it receives from the taxable REIT subsidiary. A REIT’s ownership of securities of a taxable REIT subsidiary is not subject to the 5% or 10% asset test described below. See “—Asset Tests.” Taxpayers are subject to a limitation on their ability to deduct net business interest generally equal to 30% of adjusted taxable income, subject to certain exceptions. See “—Annual Distribution Requirements.” While not certain, this provision may limit the ability of our taxable REIT subsidiaries to deduct interest, which could increase their taxable income.

 

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Ownership of Interests in Subsidiary REITs. We own and may acquire direct or indirect interests in one or more entities that have elected or will elect to be taxed as REITs under the Code (each, a “Subsidiary REIT”). A Subsidiary REIT is subject to the various REIT qualification requirements and other limitations described herein that are applicable to us. If a Subsidiary REIT were to fail to qualify as a REIT, then (i) that Subsidiary REIT would become subject to U.S. federal income tax and (ii) the Subsidiary REIT’s failure to qualify could have an adverse effect on our ability to comply with the REIT income and asset tests, and thus could impair our ability to qualify as a REIT unless we could avail ourselves of certain relief provisions.

Income Tests

We must satisfy two gross income requirements annually to maintain our qualification as a REIT. First, in each taxable year we must derive directly or indirectly at least 75% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, certain hedging transactions and certain foreign currency gains) from investments relating to real property or mortgages on real property, including “rents from real property,” dividends from other REITs and, in certain circumstances, interest, or certain types of temporary investments. Second, in each taxable year we must derive at least 95% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, certain hedging transactions and certain foreign currency gains) from the real property investments described above or dividends, interest and gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities, or from any combination of the foregoing. For these purposes, the term “interest” generally does not include any amount received or accrued, directly or indirectly, if the determination of all or some of the amount depends in any way on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount received or accrued generally will not be excluded from the term “interest” solely by reason of being based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales.

Rents we receive from a tenant will qualify as “rents from real property” for the purpose of satisfying the gross income requirements for a REIT described above only if all of the following conditions are met:

 

   

The amount of rent is not based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount we receive or accrue generally will not be excluded from the term “rents from real property” solely because it is based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales or if it is based on the net income of a tenant which derives substantially all of its income with respect to such property from subleasing of substantially all of such property, to the extent that the rents paid by the subtenants would qualify as rents from real property if we earned such amounts directly;

 

   

Neither we nor an actual or constructive owner of 10% or more of our capital stock actually or constructively owns 10% or more of the interests in the assets or net profits of a non-corporate tenant, or, if the tenant is a corporation, 10% or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or 10% or more of the total value of all classes of stock of the tenant. Rents we receive from such a tenant that is a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours, however, will not be excluded from the definition of “rents from real property” as a result of this condition if at least 90% of the space at the property to which the rents relate is leased to third parties, and the rents paid by the taxable REIT subsidiary are substantially comparable to rents paid by our other tenants for comparable space. Whether rents paid by a taxable REIT subsidiary are substantially comparable to rents paid by other tenants is determined at the time the lease with the taxable REIT subsidiary is entered into, extended, and modified, if such modification increases the rents due under such lease. Notwithstanding the foregoing, however, if a lease with a “controlled taxable REIT subsidiary” is modified and such modification results in an increase in the rents payable by such taxable REIT subsidiary, any such increase will not qualify as “rents from real property.” For purposes of this rule, a “controlled taxable REIT subsidiary” is a taxable REIT subsidiary in which the parent REIT owns stock possessing more than 50% of the voting power or more than 50% of the total value of the outstanding stock of such taxable REIT subsidiary;

 

   

Rent attributable to personal property, leased in connection with a lease of real property, is not greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease. If this condition is not met, then the portion of the

 

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rent attributable to personal property will not qualify as “rents from real property.” To the extent that rent attributable to personal property, leased in connection with a lease of real property, exceeds 15% of the total rent received under the lease, we may transfer a portion of such personal property to a taxable REIT subsidiary; and

 

   

We generally may not operate or manage the property or furnish or render services to our tenants, subject to a 1% de minimis exception and except as provided below. We may, however, perform services that are “usually or customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of space for occupancy only and are not otherwise considered “rendered to the occupant” of the property. Examples of these services include the provision of light, heat, or other utilities, trash removal and general maintenance of common areas. In addition, we may employ an independent contractor from whom we derive no revenue to provide customary services to our tenants, or a taxable REIT subsidiary (which may be wholly or partially owned by us) to provide both customary and non-customary services to our tenants, without causing the rent we receive from those tenants to fail to qualify as “rents from real property.”

We generally do not intend, and, as the indirect general partner of our operating partnership, we do not intend to permit our operating partnership, to take actions we believe will cause us to fail to satisfy the rental conditions described above. However, we may intentionally fail to satisfy some of these conditions to the extent we determine, based on the advice of our tax counsel, that the failure will not jeopardize our tax status as a REIT. In addition, with respect to the limitation on the rental of personal property, we generally have not obtained appraisals of the real property and personal property leased to tenants. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not disagree with our determinations of value.

From time to time, we may enter into hedging transactions with respect to one or more of our assets or liabilities. Our hedging activities may include entering into interest rate swaps, caps, and floors, options to purchase these items, and futures and forward contracts. Income from a hedging transaction, including gain from the sale or disposition of such a transaction, that is clearly identified as a hedging transaction as specified in the Code will not constitute gross income under, and thus will be exempt from, the 75% and 95% gross income tests. The term “hedging transaction,” as used above, generally means (A) any transaction we enter into in the normal course of our business primarily to manage risk of (1) interest rate changes or fluctuations with respect to borrowings made or to be made by us to acquire or carry real estate assets, or (2) currency fluctuations with respect to an item of qualifying income under the 75% or 95% gross income test or any property which generates such income and (B) new transactions entered into to hedge the income or loss from prior hedging transactions, where any portion of the property or indebtedness which was the subject of the prior hedging transaction was extinguished or disposed of. To the extent that we do not properly identify such transactions as hedges or we hedge with other types of financial instruments, the income from those transactions is not likely to be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the gross income tests. We intend to structure any hedging transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our status as a REIT.

From time to time we may acquire additional properties outside the United States, through a taxable REIT subsidiary or otherwise. These acquisitions could cause us to incur foreign currency gains or losses. Any foreign currency gains, to the extent attributable to specified items of qualifying income or gain, or specified qualifying assets, however, generally will not constitute gross income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests, and therefore will be excluded from these tests.

To the extent our taxable REIT subsidiaries pay dividends or interest, we generally will derive our allocable share of such dividend or interest income through our interest in our operating partnership. Such dividend or interest income will qualify under the 95%, but not the 75%, gross income test (except that our allocable share of such interest would also qualify under the 75% gross income test to the extent the interest is paid on a loan that is adequately secured by real property). We also derive our allocable share of royalty income earned by our operating partnership from one of our taxable REIT subsidiaries on account of its insurance business. Such royalty income will not qualify under the 95% or 75% gross income tests. The royalty agreement between our

 

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operating partnership and such taxable REIT subsidiary provides, among other things, that beginning with our 2016 taxable year the amount of such royalty income, together with any other nonqualifying income, will not exceed 3.9% of our gross income for any year for purposes of the 95% gross income test, or 20% of our gross income for any year for purposes of the 75% gross income test, whichever is more restrictive.

We will monitor the amount of the dividend, royalty and other income from our taxable REIT subsidiaries and will take actions intended to keep this income, and any other nonqualifying income, within the limitations of the gross income tests. Although we expect these actions will be sufficient to prevent a violation of the gross income tests, we cannot guarantee that such actions will in all cases prevent such a violation.

If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we may nevertheless qualify as a REIT for the year if we are entitled to relief under certain provisions of the Code. We generally may make use of the relief provisions if:

 

   

following our identification of the failure to meet the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we file a schedule with the IRS setting forth each item of our gross income for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for such taxable year in accordance with Treasury Regulations to be issued; and

 

   

our failure to meet these tests was due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect.

It is not possible, however, to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to the benefit of these relief provisions. For example, if we fail to satisfy the gross income tests because nonqualifying income that we intentionally accrue or receive exceeds the limits on nonqualifying income, the IRS could conclude that our failure to satisfy the tests was not due to reasonable cause. If these relief provisions do not apply to a particular set of circumstances, we will not qualify as a REIT. See “—Failure to Qualify” below. As discussed above in “—General,” even if these relief provisions apply, and we retain our status as a REIT, a tax would be imposed with respect to our nonqualifying income. We may not always be able to comply with the gross income tests for REIT qualification despite periodic monitoring of our income.

Prohibited Transaction Income. Any gain that we realize on the sale of property (other than any foreclosure property) held as inventory or otherwise held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, including our share of any such gain realized by our operating partnership, either directly or through its subsidiary partnerships, will be treated as income from a prohibited transaction that is subject to a 100% penalty tax, unless certain safe harbor exceptions apply. This prohibited transaction income may also adversely affect our ability to satisfy the gross income tests for qualification as a REIT. Under existing law, whether property is held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business is a question of fact that depends on all the facts and circumstances surrounding the particular transaction. As the indirect general partner of our operating partnership, we intend to cause our operating partnership to hold its properties for investment with a view to long-term appreciation, to engage in the business of acquiring, developing and owning its properties and to make occasional sales of the properties as are consistent with our investment objectives. Except as provided below, we do not intend, and do not intend to permit our operating partnership or its subsidiary partnerships, to enter into any sales that are prohibited transactions. However, the IRS may successfully contend that some or all of the sales made by our operating partnership or its subsidiary partnerships are prohibited transactions. We would be required to pay the 100% penalty tax on our allocable share of the gains resulting from any such sales. We are an indirect partner in certain partnerships which sell locks, boxes and packing materials to tenants. We report our allocable share of the income from these activities as prohibited transaction income. The 100% penalty tax will not apply to gains from the sale of assets that are held through a taxable REIT subsidiary, but such income will be subject to regular U.S. federal corporate income tax.

Penalty Tax. Any redetermined rents, redetermined deductions, excess interest or redetermined TRS service income we generate will be subject to a 100% penalty tax. In general, redetermined rents are rents from real property that are overstated as a result of any services furnished to any of our tenants by a taxable REIT

 

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subsidiary of ours, redetermined deductions and excess interest represent any amounts that are deducted by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours for amounts paid to us that are in excess of the amounts that would have been deducted based on arm’s length negotiations, and redetermined TRS service income is income of a taxable REIT subsidiary that is understated as a result of services provided to us or on our behalf. Rents we receive will not constitute redetermined rents if they qualify for certain safe harbor provisions contained in the Code.

From time to time our taxable REIT subsidiaries may provide services to our tenants. We believe we have set, and we intend to continue to set, any fees paid to our taxable REIT subsidiaries for such services at arm’s length rates, although the amounts paid may not satisfy the safe-harbor provisions referenced above. These determinations are inherently factual, and the IRS has broad discretion to assert that amounts paid between related parties should be reallocated to clearly reflect their respective incomes. If the IRS successfully made such an assertion, we would be required to pay a 100% penalty tax on any overstated rents paid to us, or any excess deductions or understated income of our taxable REIT subsidiaries.

Asset Tests

At the close of each calendar quarter of our taxable year, we must also satisfy certain tests relating to the nature and diversification of our assets. First, at least 75% of the value of our total assets must be represented by real estate assets, cash, cash items and U.S. government securities. For purposes of this test, the term “real estate assets” generally means real property (including interests in real property and interests in mortgages on real property or on both real property and, to a limited extent, personal property), shares (or transferable certificates of beneficial interest) in other REITs, any stock or debt instrument attributable to the investment of the proceeds of a stock offering or a public offering of debt with a term of at least five years (but only for the one-year period beginning on the date the REIT receives such proceeds), debt instruments of publicly offered REITs, and personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property for which the rent attributable to personal property is not greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease.

Second, not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by securities (including securities of taxable REIT subsidiaries), other than those securities includable in the 75% asset test.

Third, of the investments included in the 25% asset class, and except for certain investments in other REITs, our qualified REIT subsidiaries and taxable REIT subsidiaries, the value of any one issuer’s securities may not exceed 5% of the value of our total assets, and we may not own more than 10% of the total vote or value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer. Certain types of securities we may own are disregarded as securities solely for purposes of the 10% value test, including, but not limited to, securities satisfying the “straight debt” safe harbor, securities issued by a partnership that itself would satisfy the 75% income test if it were a REIT, any loan to an individual or an estate, any obligation to pay rents from real property and any security issued by a REIT. In addition, solely for purposes of the 10% value test, the determination of our interest in the assets of a partnership in which we own an interest will be based on our proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership, excluding for this purpose certain securities described in the Code. From time to time we may own securities (including debt securities) of issuers that do not qualify as a REIT, a qualified REIT subsidiary or a taxable REIT subsidiary. We intend that our ownership of any such securities will be structured in a manner that allows us to comply with the asset tests described above.

Fourth, not more than 20% (25% for taxable years beginning after July 30, 2008 and before January 1, 2018) of the value of our total assets may be represented by the securities of one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries.

Our operating partnership currently owns, directly and indirectly, the stock of certain corporations, including Extra Space Management, Inc., that have elected, together with us, to be treated as our taxable REIT subsidiaries, and we may acquire securities in additional taxable REIT subsidiaries in the future. So long as each of these companies qualifies as a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours, we will not be subject to the 5% asset test, the

 

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10% voting power limitation or the 10% value limitation with respect to our indirect ownership of the securities of such companies. We believe that the aggregate value of our taxable REIT subsidiaries has not exceeded, and in the future will not exceed, 20% (25% for taxable years beginning after July 30, 2008 and before January 1, 2018) of the aggregate value of our gross assets. We generally do not obtain independent appraisals to support these conclusions. In addition, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not disagree with our determinations of value.

Fifth, not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by debt instruments of publicly offered REITs to the extent those debt instruments would not be real estate assets but for the inclusion of debt instruments of publicly offered REITs in the meaning of real estate assets, as described above (e.g., a debt instrument issued by a publicly offered REIT that is not secured by a mortgage on real property).

In addition, we may make or acquire certain mezzanine loans secured by equity interests in pass-through entities that directly or indirectly own real property. Revenue Procedure 2003-65 (the “Revenue Procedure”) provides a safe harbor pursuant to which mezzanine loans meeting the requirements of the safe harbor will be treated by the IRS as real estate assets for purposes of the REIT asset tests. In addition, any interest derived from such mezzanine loans will be treated as qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test (described above). Although the Revenue Procedure provides a safe harbor on which taxpayers may rely, it does not prescribe rules of substantive tax law. The mezzanine loans that we make or acquire may not meet all of the requirements of the safe harbor. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not challenge the qualification of such assets as real estate assets or the interest generated by these loans as qualifying income under the 75% gross income test (described above).

The asset tests must be satisfied at the close of each calendar quarter of our taxable year in which we (directly or through any partnership or qualified REIT subsidiary) acquire securities in the applicable issuer, and also at the close of each calendar quarter in which we increase our ownership of securities of such issuer (including as a result of an increase in our interest in any partnership that owns such securities). For example, our indirect ownership of securities of each issuer will increase as a result of our capital contributions to our operating partnership or as limited partners exercise any redemption/exchange rights. Also, after initially meeting the asset tests at the close of any quarter, we will not lose our status as a REIT for failure to satisfy the asset tests at the end of a later quarter solely by reason of changes in asset values. If we fail to satisfy an asset test because we acquire securities or other property during a quarter (including as a result of an increase in our interest in any partnership), we may cure this failure by disposing of sufficient nonqualifying assets within 30 days after the close of that quarter. We believe that we have maintained, and we intend to maintain, adequate records of the value of our assets to ensure compliance with the asset tests. If we fail to cure any noncompliance with the asset tests within the 30-day cure period, we would cease to qualify as a REIT unless we are eligible for certain relief provisions discussed below.

Certain relief provisions may be available to us if we discover a failure to satisfy the asset tests described above after the 30-day cure period. Under these provisions, we will be deemed to have met the 5% and 10% asset tests if the value of our nonqualifying assets (i) does not exceed the lesser of (a) 1% of the total value of our assets at the end of the applicable quarter or (b) $10,000,000, and (ii) we dispose of the nonqualifying assets or otherwise satisfy such tests within (a) six months after the last day of the quarter in which the failure to satisfy the asset tests is discovered or (b) the period of time prescribed by Treasury Regulations to be issued. For violations of any of the asset tests due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect and that are, in the case of the 5% and 10% asset tests, in excess of the de minimis exception described above, we may avoid disqualification as a REIT after the 30-day cure period by taking steps including (i) the disposition of sufficient nonqualifying assets, or the taking of other actions, which allow us to meet the asset tests within (a) six months after the last day of the quarter in which the failure to satisfy the asset tests is discovered or (b) the period of time prescribed by Treasury Regulations to be issued, (ii) paying a tax equal to the greater of (a) $50,000 or (b) the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate multiplied by the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets, and (iii) disclosing certain information to the IRS.

 

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Although we believe we have satisfied the asset tests described above and plan to take steps to ensure that we satisfy such tests for any quarter with respect to which retesting is to occur, there can be no assurance that we will always be successful, or will not require a reduction in our operating partnership’s overall interest in an issuer (including in a taxable REIT subsidiary). If we fail to cure any noncompliance with the asset tests in a timely manner, and the relief provisions described above are not available, we would cease to qualify as a REIT.

Annual Distribution Requirements

To maintain our qualification as a REIT, we are required to distribute dividends, other than capital gain dividends, to our stockholders each year in an amount at least equal to the sum of:

 

   

90% of our REIT taxable income; and

 

   

90% of our after-tax net income, if any, from foreclosure property; minus

 

   

the excess of the sum of certain items of non-cash income over 5% of our REIT taxable income.

For these purposes, our REIT taxable income is computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and our net capital gain. In addition, for purposes of this test, non-cash income generally means income attributable to leveled stepped rents, original issue discount, cancellation of indebtedness, or a like-kind exchange that is later determined to be taxable.

In addition, our REIT taxable income will be reduced by any taxes we are required to pay on any gain we recognize from the disposition of any asset we acquired from a corporation that is or has been a C corporation in a transaction in which our tax basis in the asset is less than the fair market value of the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset, within the five-year period following our acquisition of such asset, as described above under “—General.”

Except as provided below, a taxpayer’s deduction for net business interest expense will generally be limited to 30% of its taxable income, as adjusted for certain items of income, gain, deduction or loss. Any business interest deduction that is disallowed due to this limitation may be carried forward to future taxable years, subject to special rules applicable to partnerships. If we or any of our subsidiary partnerships (including our operating partnership) are subject to this interest expense limitation, our REIT taxable income for a taxable year may be increased. Taxpayers that conduct certain real estate businesses may elect not to have this interest expense limitation apply to them, provided that they use an alternative depreciation system to depreciate certain property. We believe that we or any of our subsidiary partnerships that are subject to this interest expense limitation will be eligible to make this election. If such election is made, although we or such subsidiary partnership, as applicable, would not be subject to the interest expense limitation described above, depreciation deductions may be reduced and, as a result, our REIT taxable income for a taxable year may be increased.

We generally must pay, or be treated as paying, the distributions described above in the taxable year to which they relate. At our election, a distribution will be treated as paid in a taxable year if it is declared before we timely file our tax return for such year and paid on or before the first regular dividend payment after such declaration, provided such payment is made during the 12-month period following the close of such year. These distributions are treated as received by our stockholders in the year in which they are paid. This is so even though these distributions relate to the prior year for purposes of the 90% distribution requirement. In order to be taken into account for purposes of our distribution requirement, except as provided below, the amount distributed must not be preferential—i.e., every stockholder of the class of stock to which a distribution is made must be treated the same as every other stockholder of that class, and no class of stock may be treated other than according to its dividend rights as a class. This preferential dividend limitation will not apply to distributions made by us, provided we qualify as a “publicly offered REIT.” We believe that we are, and expect we will continue to be, a publicly offered REIT. However, Subsidiary REITs we may own from time to time may not be publicly offered REITs. To the extent that we do not distribute all of our net capital gain, or distribute at least 90%, but less than

 

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100%, of our REIT taxable income, as adjusted, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on the undistributed amount. We believe that we have made, and we intend to continue to make, timely distributions sufficient to satisfy these annual distribution requirements and to minimize our corporate tax obligations. In this regard, the partnership agreement of our operating partnership authorizes ESS Holdings Business Trust I, our wholly-owned subsidiary and the general partner of our operating partnership, and us, as the indirect general partner of our operating partnership, to take such steps as may be necessary to cause our operating partnership to distribute to its partners an amount sufficient to permit us to meet these distribution requirements and to minimize our corporate tax obligation.

We expect that our REIT taxable income will typically be less than our cash flow because of depreciation and other non-cash charges included in computing REIT taxable income. Accordingly, we anticipate that we generally will have sufficient cash or liquid assets to enable us to satisfy the distribution requirements described above. However, from time to time, we may not have sufficient cash or other liquid assets to meet these distribution requirements due to timing differences between the actual receipt of income and actual payment of deductible expenses, and the inclusion of income and deduction of expenses in determining our taxable income. In addition, we may decide to retain our cash, rather than distribute it, in order to repay debt or for other reasons. If these timing differences occur, we may borrow funds to pay dividends or pay dividends in the form of taxable stock distributions in order to meet the distribution requirements, while preserving our cash.

Under some circumstances, we may be able to rectify an inadvertent failure to meet the 90% distribution requirement for a year by paying “deficiency dividends” to our stockholders in a later year, which may be included in our deduction for dividends paid for the earlier year. In that case, we may be able to avoid being taxed on amounts distributed as deficiency dividends, subject to the 4% excise tax described below. However, we will be required to pay interest to the IRS based upon the amount of any deduction claimed for deficiency dividends. While the payment of a deficiency dividend will apply to a prior year for purposes of our REIT distribution requirements, it will be treated as an additional distribution to our stockholders in the year such dividend is paid.

Furthermore, we will be required to pay a 4% excise tax to the extent we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of 85% of our ordinary income for such year, 95% of our capital gain net income for the year and any undistributed taxable income from prior periods. Any ordinary income and net capital gain on which U.S. federal corporate income tax is imposed for any year is treated as an amount distributed during that year for purposes of calculating this excise tax.

For purposes of the 90% distribution requirement and excise tax described above, dividends declared during the last three months of the taxable year, payable to stockholders of record on a specified date during such period and paid during January of the following year, will be treated as paid by us and received by our stockholders on December 31 of the year in which they are declared.

Like-Kind Exchanges

We may dispose of real property that is not held primarily for sale in transactions intended to qualify as like-kind exchanges under the Code. Such like-kind exchanges are intended to result in the deferral of gain for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The failure of any such transaction to qualify as a like-kind exchange could require us to pay U.S. federal income tax, possibly including the 100% prohibited transaction tax, or deficiency dividends, depending on the facts and circumstances surrounding the particular transaction.

Tax Liabilities and Attributes Inherited in Connection with Acquisitions

From time to time, we or our operating partnership may acquire other corporations or entities and, in connection with such acquisitions, we may succeed to the historical tax attributes and liabilities of such entities. For example, if we acquire a C corporation and subsequently dispose of its assets within five years of the

 

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acquisition, we could be required to pay the built-in gain tax described above under “—General.” In addition, in order to qualify as a REIT, at the end of any taxable year, we must not have any earnings and profits accumulated in a non-REIT year. As a result, if we acquire a C corporation (including upon a liquidation of a taxable REIT subsidiary), we must distribute the corporation’s earnings and profits accumulated prior to the acquisition before the end of the taxable year in which we acquire the corporation. We also could be required to pay the acquired entity’s unpaid taxes even though such liabilities arose prior to the time we acquired the entity.

Moreover, we or one of our subsidiaries may from time to time acquire other REITs through a merger or acquisition. If any such REIT failed to qualify as a REIT for any of its taxable years, such REIT would be liable for (and we or our subsidiary, as applicable, as the surviving corporation in the merger or acquisition, would be obligated to pay) regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on its taxable income for such taxable years. In addition, if such REIT was a C corporation at the time of the merger or acquisition, the tax consequences described in the preceding paragraph generally would apply. If such REIT failed to qualify as a REIT for any of its taxable years, but qualified as a REIT at the time of such merger or acquisition, and we acquired such REIT’s assets in a transaction in which our tax basis in the assets of such REIT is determined, in whole or in part, by reference to such REIT’s tax basis in such assets, we generally would be subject to tax on the built-in gain on each asset of such REIT as described above if we were to dispose of the asset in a taxable transaction during the five-year period following such REIT’s requalification as a REIT, subject to certain exceptions. Moreover, even if such REIT qualified as a REIT at all relevant times, we would similarly be liable for other unpaid taxes (if any) of such REIT (such as the 100% tax on gains from any sales treated as “prohibited transactions” as described above under “—Prohibited Transaction Income”).

Furthermore, after our acquisition of another corporation or entity, the asset and income tests will apply to all of our assets, including the assets we acquire from such corporation or entity, and to all of our income, including the income derived from the assets we acquire from such corporation or entity. As a result, the nature of the assets that we acquire from such corporation or entity and the income we derive from those assets may have an effect on our tax status as a REIT.

Failure to Qualify

If we discover a violation of a provision of the Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT, certain specified cure provisions may be available to us. Except with respect to violations of the gross income tests and asset tests (for which the cure provisions are described above), and provided the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, these cure provisions generally impose a $50,000 penalty for each violation in lieu of a loss of REIT status. If we fail to satisfy the requirements for taxation as a REIT in any taxable year, and the relief provisions do not apply, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax, including any applicable alternative minimum tax, on our taxable income. Distributions to stockholders in any year in which we fail to qualify as a REIT will not be deductible by us. As a result, we anticipate that our failure to qualify as a REIT would reduce the cash available for distribution by us to our stockholders. In addition, if we fail to qualify as a REIT, we will not be required to distribute any amounts to our stockholders and all distributions to stockholders will be taxable as regular corporate dividends to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits. In such event, corporate stockholders may be eligible for the dividends-received deduction. In addition, non-corporate stockholders, including individuals, may be eligible for the preferential tax rates on qualified dividend income. Non-corporate stockholders, including individuals, generally may deduct up to 20% of “qualified REIT dividends” (generally, dividends from a REIT received during the taxable year other than capital gain dividends and dividends treated as qualified dividend income) for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2026 for purposes of determining their U.S. federal income tax (but not for purposes of the 3.8% Medicare tax), subject to certain holding period requirements and other limitations. See “—Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences to Holders of Our Capital Stock—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Tax Rates” below. If we fail to qualify as a REIT, such stockholders may not claim this deduction with respect to dividends paid by us. Unless entitled to relief under specific statutory provisions, we would also be ineligible to elect to be treated as a REIT for the four taxable years following the

 

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year for which we lose our qualification. It is not possible to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to this statutory relief.

Tax Aspects of Our Operating Partnership, the Subsidiary Partnerships and the Limited Liability Companies

General. All of our investments are held indirectly through our operating partnership. In addition, our operating partnership holds certain of its investments indirectly through subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies that we believe are and will continue to be treated as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In general, entities that are treated as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes are “pass-through” entities which are not required to pay U.S. federal income tax. Rather, partners of such partnerships are allocated their shares of the items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the partnership, and are potentially required to pay tax on this income, without regard to whether they receive a distribution from the partnership. We will include in our income our share of these partnership items for purposes of the various gross income tests, the computation of our REIT taxable income, and the REIT distribution requirements. Moreover, for purposes of the asset tests, we will include our pro rata share of assets held by our operating partnership, including its share of the assets of its subsidiary partnerships, based on our capital interests in each such entity. See “—Taxation of Our Company—Ownership of Interests in Partnerships, Limited Liability Companies and Qualified REIT Subsidiaries.” A disregarded entity is not treated as a separate entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of a disregarded entity are treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of its parent that is not a disregarded entity (e.g., our operating partnership) for all purposes under the Code, including all REIT qualification tests.

Entity Classification. Our interests in our operating partnership and the subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies involve special tax considerations, including the possibility that the IRS might challenge the status of these entities as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes. For example, an entity that would otherwise be treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes may nonetheless be taxable as a corporation if it is a “publicly traded partnership,” or PTP, and certain other requirements are met. A partnership would be treated as a PTP if its interests are traded on an established securities market or are readily tradable on a secondary market or a substantial equivalent thereof, within the meaning of applicable Treasury Regulations. Interests in a partnership are not treated as readily tradable on a secondary market, or the substantial equivalent thereof, if the requirements of certain safe harbors are met. The operating partnership or any subsidiary partnership may avoid becoming a PTP by complying with one or more of these safe harbors. However, no assurance can be given that the operating partnership or any subsidiary partnership will always satisfy such a safe harbor.

If our operating partnership or any subsidiary partnership fails to satisfy a safe harbor from treatment as a PTP, due to the redemption rights (if any) of its partners and other provisions of its partnership agreement, it is possible that in certain circumstances the operating partnership or such subsidiary partnership could be treated as a PTP. If the operating partnership or a subsidiary partnership is treated as a PTP and 90% or more of the operating partnership’s or such subsidiary partnership’s gross income consists of dividends, interest, “rents from real property” (as that term is defined for purposes of the rules applicable to REITs, with certain modifications), gain from the sale or other disposition of real property, and certain other types of qualifying income, the operating partnership or such subsidiary partnership, as applicable, would continue to be treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes under what we refer to as the “Qualifying Income Exception.” However, partners in a PTP meeting the Qualifying Income Exception may not use their share of passive income or loss of the PTP to offset their passive income or loss from other sources. We, as the indirect general partner of our operating partnership, have the authority to allow the operating partnership to become a PTP, provided the operating partnership would satisfy the Qualifying Income Exception (as we believe would be the case). While the operating partnership currently plans to comply with certain safe harbors under the Treasury Regulations to avoid PTP status, we may allow the operating partnership to become a PTP in the future.

 

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If our operating partnership or any of our subsidiary partnerships were to be treated as a PTP, and failed to satisfy the Qualifying Income Exception, that partnership would be taxable as a corporation. If that were to occur, the partnership would be required to pay an entity-level tax on its income. In this situation, the character of our assets and items of gross income would change and could prevent us from satisfying the REIT asset tests and possibly the REIT income tests. See “—Taxation of Our Company—Asset Tests” and “—Income Tests.” This, in turn, could prevent us from qualifying as a REIT. See “—Taxation of Our Company—Failure to Qualify” for a discussion of the effect of our failure to meet these tests. In addition, a change in the tax status of our operating partnership or a subsidiary treated as a partnership or disregarded entity to a corporation might be treated as a taxable event. If so, we might incur a tax liability without any related cash payment.

We believe our operating partnership and each of the subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies are and will continue to be treated as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and we do not anticipate that our operating partnership or any subsidiary partnership will be treated as a PTP that is taxable as a corporation.

Allocations of Items of Income, Gain, Loss and Deduction. The operating partnership agreement generally provides that (1) net income generally is allocated first to the partners to the extent they have been allocated net loss previously, then to partners holding preferred OP units until such partners have been allocated net income equal to their preferred return, and finally to partners holding common OP units pro rata in accordance with such partners’ percentage interests; and (2) net loss generally is allocated in the reverse order of net income, but only to the extent such allocation of net loss will not cause a partner to have an adjusted capital account deficit or increase any existing adjusted capital account deficit (determined by subtracting the amount of preferred distribution to be made upon liquidation with respect to any preferred OP units), with any residual net loss being allocated to us as the indirect general partner of our operating partnership. The partnership agreement contains provisions for special allocations intended to comply with certain regulatory requirements, including the requirements of Treasury Regulations Sections 1.704-1(b) and 1.704-2. Certain limited partners may guarantee debt of our operating partnership. As a result of these guaranties, and notwithstanding the foregoing discussion of allocations of income and loss of our operating partnership to holders of units, such limited partners could under limited circumstances be allocated a disproportionate amount of net loss upon a liquidation of our operating partnership, which net loss would have otherwise been allocable to us.

If an allocation of partnership income or loss does not comply with the requirements of Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder, the item subject to the allocation will be reallocated in accordance with the partners’ interests in the partnership. This reallocation will be determined by taking into account all of the facts and circumstances relating to the economic arrangement of the partners with respect to such item. The allocations of taxable income and loss of our operating partnership and any subsidiaries that are treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes are intended to comply with the requirements of Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder.

Tax Allocations With Respect to the Properties. Under Section 704(c) of the Code, items of income, gain, loss and deduction attributable to appreciated or depreciated property that is contributed to a partnership in exchange for an interest in the partnership must be allocated in a manner so that the contributing partner is charged with the unrealized gain or benefits from the unrealized loss associated with the property at the time of the contribution. The amount of the unrealized gain or unrealized loss generally is equal to the difference between the fair market value or book value and the adjusted tax basis of the contributed property at the time of contribution (this difference is referred to as a book-tax difference), as adjusted from time to time. These allocations are solely for U.S. federal income tax purposes and do not affect the book capital accounts or other economic or legal arrangements among the partners.

Our operating partnership may, from time to time, acquire interests in property in exchange for interests in our operating partnership. In that case, the tax basis of these property interests generally will carry over to our operating partnership, notwithstanding their different book (i.e., fair market) value. The partnership agreement

 

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requires that income and loss allocations with respect to these properties be made in a manner consistent with Section 704(c) of the Code. Treasury Regulations issued under Section 704(c) of the Code provide partnerships with a choice of several methods of accounting for book-tax differences. Depending on the method we choose in connection with any particular contribution, the carryover basis of each of the contributed interests in the properties in the hands of our operating partnership (1) could cause us to be allocated lower amounts of depreciation deductions for tax purposes than would be allocated to us if any of the contributed properties were to have a tax basis equal to its respective fair market value at the time of the contribution and (2) could cause us to be allocated taxable gain in the event of a sale of such contributed interests or properties in excess of the economic or book income allocated to us as a result of such sale, with a corresponding benefit to the other partners in our operating partnership. An allocation described in clause (2) above might cause us or the other partners to recognize taxable income in excess of cash proceeds in the event of a sale or other disposition of property, which might adversely affect our ability to comply with the REIT distribution requirements. See “—Taxation of Our Company—Requirements for Qualification as a REIT” and “—Annual Distribution Requirements.”

Any property acquired by our operating partnership in a taxable transaction will initially have a tax basis equal to its fair market value, and Section 704(c) of the Code generally will not apply.

Partnership Audit Rules. Under current tax law, subject to certain exceptions, any audit adjustment to items of income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit of a partnership (and any partner’s distributive share thereof) is determined, and taxes, interest, or penalties attributable thereto are assessed and collected, at the partnership level. It is possible that these rules could result in partnerships in which we directly or indirectly invest, including our operating partnership, being required to pay additional taxes, interest and penalties as a result of an audit adjustment, and we, as a direct or indirect partner of these partnerships, could be required to bear the economic burden of those taxes, interest, and penalties even though we, as a REIT, may not otherwise have been required to pay additional corporate-level taxes as a result of the related audit adjustment. Investors are urged to consult their tax advisors with respect to these rules and their potential impact on their investment in our capital stock.

Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences to Holders of Our Capital Stock and Our Operating Partnership’s Debt Securities

The following discussion is a summary of the material U.S. federal income tax consequences to you of purchasing, owning and disposing of our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities. This discussion is limited to holders who hold our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities as a “capital asset” within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code (generally, property held for investment). This discussion does not address all U.S. federal income tax consequences relevant to a holder’s particular circumstances, including the alternative minimum tax. In addition, except where specifically noted, it does not address consequences relevant to holders subject to special rules, including, without limitation:

 

   

U.S. expatriates and former citizens or long-term residents of the United States;

 

   

U.S. holders (as defined below) whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar;

 

   

persons holding our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities as part of a hedge, straddle or other risk reduction strategy or as part of a conversion transaction or other integrated investment;

 

   

banks, insurance companies, and other financial institutions;

 

   

REITs or regulated investment companies;

 

   

brokers, dealers or traders in securities;

 

   

“controlled foreign corporations,” “passive foreign investment companies,” and corporations that accumulate earnings to avoid U.S. federal income tax;

 

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S corporations, partnerships or other entities or arrangements treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes (and investors therein);

 

   

tax-exempt organizations or governmental organizations;

 

   

persons deemed to sell our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities under the constructive sale provisions of the Code;

 

   

persons subject to special tax accounting rules as a result of any item of gross income with respect to our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities being taken into account in an applicable financial statement;

 

   

tax-qualified retirement plans; and

 

   

persons who hold or receive our capital stock pursuant to the exercise of any employee stock option or otherwise as compensation.

THIS DISCUSSION IS FOR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY AND IS NOT INTENDED AS TAX ADVICE. INVESTORS SHOULD CONSULT THEIR TAX ADVISORS WITH RESPECT TO THE APPLICATION OF THE U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX LAWS TO THEIR PARTICULAR SITUATIONS AS WELL AS ANY TAX CONSEQUENCES OF THE PURCHASE, OWNERSHIP AND DISPOSITION OF OUR CAPITAL STOCK OR OUR OPERATING PARTNERSHIP’S DEBT SECURITIES ARISING UNDER OTHER U.S. FEDERAL TAX LAWS (INCLUDING ESTATE AND GIFT TAX LAWS), UNDER THE LAWS OF ANY STATE, LOCAL OR NON-U.S. TAXING JURISDICTION OR UNDER ANY APPLICABLE TAX TREATY.

For purposes of this discussion, a “U.S. holder” is a beneficial owner of our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities that, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, is or is treated as:

 

   

an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States;

 

   

a corporation created or organized under the laws of the United States, any state thereof, or the District of Columbia;

 

   

an estate, the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income tax regardless of its source; or

 

   

a trust that (1) is subject to the primary supervision of a U.S. court and the control of one or more “United States persons” (within the meaning of Section 7701(a)(30) of the Code) or (2) has a valid election in effect to be treated as a United States person for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

For purposes of this discussion, a “non-U.S. holder” is any beneficial owner of our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities that is neither a U.S. holder nor an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

If an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities, the tax treatment of a partner in the partnership will depend on the status of the partner, the activities of the partnership and certain determinations made at the partner level. Accordingly, partnerships holding our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities and the partners in such partnerships should consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences to them.

Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock

Distributions Generally. Distributions out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits will be treated as dividends and, other than with respect to capital gain dividends and certain amounts which have previously been subject to corporate level tax, as discussed below, will be taxable to our taxable U.S. holders as ordinary income when actually or constructively received. See “—Tax Rates” below. As long as we qualify as a REIT, these distributions will not be eligible for the dividends-received deduction in the case of U.S. holders that are

 

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corporations or, except to the extent described in “—Tax Rates” below, the preferential rates on qualified dividend income applicable to non-corporate U.S. holders, including individuals. For purposes of determining whether distributions to holders of our capital stock are out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits, our earnings and profits will be allocated first to our outstanding preferred stock, if any, and then to our outstanding common stock.

To the extent that we make distributions on our capital stock in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits allocable to such stock, these distributions will be treated first as a tax-free return of capital to a U.S. holder to the extent of the U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in such shares of stock. This treatment will reduce the U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in such shares of stock by such amount, but not below zero. Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits and in excess of a U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in its shares will be taxable as capital gain. Such gain will be taxable as long-term capital gain if the shares have been held for more than one year. Dividends we declare in October, November, or December of any year and which are payable to a holder of record on a specified date in any of these months will be treated as both paid by us and received by the holder on December 31 of that year, provided we actually pay the dividend on or before January 31 of the following year. U.S. holders may not include in their own income tax returns any of our net operating losses or capital losses.

U.S. holders that receive taxable stock distributions, including distributions partially payable in our capital stock and partially payable in cash, would be required to include the full amount of the distribution (i.e., the cash and the stock portion) as a dividend (subject to limited exceptions) to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits for U.S. federal income tax purposes, as described above. The amount of any distribution payable in our capital stock generally is equal to the amount of cash that could have been received instead of the capital stock. Depending on the circumstances of a U.S. holder, the tax on the distribution may exceed the amount of the distribution received in cash, in which case such U.S. holder would have to pay the tax using cash from other sources. If a U.S. holder sells the capital stock it received in connection with a taxable stock distribution in order to pay this tax and the proceeds of such sale are less than the amount required to be included in income with respect to the stock portion of the distribution, such U.S. holder could have a capital loss with respect to the stock sale that could not be used to offset such income. A U.S. holder that receives capital stock pursuant to such distribution generally has a tax basis in such capital stock equal to the amount of cash that could have been received instead of such capital stock as described above, and has a holding period in such capital stock that begins on the day immediately following the payment date for the distribution.

Capital Gain Dividends. Dividends that we properly designate as capital gain dividends will generally be taxable to our taxable U.S. holders as a gain from the sale or disposition of a capital asset held for more than one year, to the extent that such gain does not exceed our actual net capital gain for the taxable year and may not exceed our dividends paid for the taxable year, including dividends paid the following year that are treated as paid in the current year. U.S. holders that are corporations may, however, be required to treat up to 20% of certain capital gain dividends as ordinary income. If we properly designate any portion of a dividend as a capital gain dividend, then, except as otherwise required by law, we presently intend to allocate a portion of the total capital gain dividends paid or made available to holders of all classes of our capital stock for the year to the holders of each class of our capital stock in proportion to the amount that our total dividends, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes, paid or made available to the holders of each such class of our capital stock for the year bears to the total dividends, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes, paid or made available to holders of all classes of our capital stock for the year. In addition, except as otherwise required by law, we will make a similar allocation with respect to any undistributed long-term capital gains which are to be included in our stockholders’ long-term capital gains, based on the allocation of the capital gain amount which would have resulted if those undistributed long-term capital gains had been distributed as “capital gain dividends” by us to our stockholders.

Retention of Net Capital Gains. We may elect to retain, rather than distribute as a capital gain dividend, all or a portion of our net capital gains. If we make this election, we would pay tax on our retained net capital gains.

 

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In addition, to the extent we so elect, our earnings and profits (determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes) would be adjusted accordingly, and a U.S. holder generally would:

 

   

include its pro rata share of our undistributed capital gain in computing its long-term capital gains in its U.S. federal income tax return for its taxable year in which the last day of our taxable year falls, subject to certain limitations as to the amount that is includable;

 

   

be deemed to have paid its share of the capital gains tax imposed on us on the designated amounts included in the U.S. holder’s income as long-term capital gain;

 

   

receive a credit or refund for the amount of tax deemed paid by it;

 

   

increase the adjusted tax basis of its capital stock by the difference between the amount of includable gains and the tax deemed to have been paid by it; and

 

   

in the case of a U.S. holder that is a corporation, appropriately adjust its earnings and profits for the retained capital gains in accordance with Treasury Regulations to be promulgated by the IRS.

Passive Activity Losses and Investment Interest Limitations. Distributions we make and gain arising from the sale or exchange of our capital stock by a U.S. holder will not be treated as passive activity income. As a result, U.S. holders generally will not be able to apply any “passive losses” against this income or gain. A U.S. holder generally may elect to treat capital gain dividends, capital gains from the disposition of our capital stock and income designated as qualified dividend income, as described in “—Tax Rates” below, as investment income for purposes of computing the investment interest limitation, but in such case, the holder will be taxed at ordinary income rates on such amount. Other distributions made by us, to the extent they do not constitute a return of capital, generally will be treated as investment income for purposes of computing the investment interest limitation.

Dispositions of Our Capital Stock. Except as described below under “—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Redemption or Repurchase by Us,” if a U.S. holder sells or disposes of shares of our capital stock, it will recognize gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes in an amount equal to the difference between the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received on the sale or other disposition and the holder’s adjusted tax basis in the shares. This gain or loss, except as provided below, will be long-term capital gain or loss if the holder has held such capital stock for more than one year. However, if a U.S. holder recognizes a loss upon the sale or other disposition of capital stock that it has held for six months or less, after applying certain holding period rules, the loss recognized will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent the U.S. holder received distributions from us which were required to be treated as long-term capital gains. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to limitations.

Redemption or Repurchase by Us. A redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock will be treated under Section 302 of the Code as a distribution (and taxable as a dividend to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits as described above under “—Distributions Generally”) unless the redemption or repurchase satisfies one of the tests set forth in Section 302(b) of the Code and is therefore treated as a sale or exchange of the redeemed or repurchased shares. The redemption or repurchase generally will be treated as a sale or exchange if it:

 

   

is “substantially disproportionate” with respect to the U.S. holder,

 

   

results in a “complete redemption” of the U.S. holder’s stock interest in us, or

 

   

is “not essentially equivalent to a dividend” with respect to the U.S. holder,

all within the meaning of Section 302(b) of the Code.

In determining whether any of these tests has been met, shares of our capital stock, including common stock and other equity interests in us, considered to be owned by the U.S. holder by reason of certain constructive

 

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ownership rules set forth in the Code, as well as shares of our capital stock actually owned by the U.S. holder, generally must be taken into account. Because the determination as to whether any of the alternative tests of Section 302(b) of the Code will be satisfied with respect to the U.S. holder depends upon the facts and circumstances at the time that the determination must be made, U.S. holders are advised to consult their tax advisors to determine such tax treatment.

If a redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock is treated as a distribution, the amount of the distribution will be measured by the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received. See “—Distributions Generally.” A U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in the redeemed or repurchased shares generally will be transferred to the holder’s remaining shares of our capital stock, if any. If a U.S. holder owns no other shares of our capital stock, under certain circumstances, such basis may be transferred to a related person or it may be lost entirely. Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences of a redemption or repurchase of our capital stock.

If a redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock is not treated as a distribution, it will be treated as a taxable sale or exchange in the manner described under “—Dispositions of Our Capital Stock.”

Tax Rates. The maximum tax rate for non-corporate taxpayers for (1) long-term capital gains, including certain “capital gain dividends,” generally is 20% (although depending on the characteristics of the assets which produced these gains and on designations which we may make, certain capital gain dividends may be taxed at a 25% rate) and (2) “qualified dividend income” generally is 20%. In general, dividends payable by REITs are not eligible for the reduced tax rate on qualified dividend income, except to the extent that certain holding period requirements have been met and the REIT’s dividends are attributable to dividends received from taxable corporations (such as its taxable REIT subsidiaries) or to income that was subject to tax at the corporate/REIT level (for example, if the REIT distributed taxable income that it retained and paid tax on in the prior taxable year). Capital gain dividends will only be eligible for the preferential rates described above to the extent that they are properly designated by the REIT as “capital gain dividends.” U.S. holders that are corporations may be required to treat up to 20% of any capital gain dividends as ordinary income. In addition, for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2026, non-corporate U.S. holders, including individuals, generally may deduct up to 20% of “qualified REIT dividends” (generally, dividends from a REIT received during the taxable year other than capital gain dividends and dividends treated as qualified dividend income) for purposes of determining their U.S. federal income tax (but not for purposes of the 3.8% Medicare tax), subject to certain limitations. Under applicable Treasury Regulations, in order for a REIT dividend received with respect to a share of REIT stock to be treated as a qualified REIT dividend, the non-corporate U.S. holder must have held the share for more than 45 days during the 91-day period beginning on the date which is 45 days before the date on which such share becomes ex-dividend with respect to such dividend, and such dividend will not be treated as a qualified REIT dividend to the extent that the non-corporate U.S. holder is under an obligation (whether pursuant to a short sale or otherwise) to make related payments with respect to positions in substantially similar or related property.

Taxation of Tax-Exempt Holders of Our Capital Stock

Dividend income from us and gain arising upon a sale of shares of our capital stock generally should not be unrelated business taxable income (“UBTI”) to a tax-exempt holder, except as described below. This income or gain will be UBTI, however, to the extent a tax-exempt holder holds its shares as “debt-financed property” within the meaning of the Code. Generally, “debt-financed property” is property the acquisition or holding of which was financed through a borrowing by the tax-exempt holder.

For tax-exempt holders that are social clubs, voluntary employee benefit associations or supplemental unemployment benefit trusts exempt from U.S. federal income taxation under Sections 501(c)(7), (c)(9) or (c)(17) of the Code, respectively, income from an investment in our shares will constitute UBTI unless the organization is able to properly claim a deduction for amounts set aside or placed in reserve for specific purposes so as to offset the income generated by its investment in our shares. These prospective investors should consult their tax advisors concerning these “set aside” and reserve requirements.

 

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Notwithstanding the above, however, a portion of the dividends paid by a “pension-held REIT” may be treated as UBTI as to certain trusts that hold more than 10%, by value, of the interests in the REIT. A REIT will not be a “pension-held REIT” if it is able to satisfy the “not closely held” requirement without relying on the “look-through” exception with respect to certain trusts or if such REIT is not “predominantly held” by “qualified trusts.” As a result of restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock contained in our charter, we do not expect to be classified as a “pension-held REIT,” and as a result, the tax treatment described above should be inapplicable to our holders. However, because our common stock is (and, we anticipate, will continue to be) publicly traded, we cannot guarantee that this will always be the case.

Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock

The following discussion addresses the rules governing U.S. federal income taxation of the purchase, ownership and disposition of our capital stock by non-U.S. holders. These rules are complex, and no attempt is made herein to provide more than a brief summary of such rules. Accordingly, the discussion does not address all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation and does not address other federal, state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences that may be relevant to a non-U.S. holder in light of its particular circumstances. We urge non-U.S. holders to consult their tax advisors to determine the impact of U.S. federal, state, local and non-U.S. income and other tax laws and any applicable tax treaty on the purchase, ownership and disposition of shares of our capital stock, including any reporting requirements.

Distributions Generally. Distributions (including any taxable stock distributions) that are neither attributable to gains from sales or exchanges by us of United States real property interests (“USRPIs”) nor designated by us as capital gain dividends (except as described below) will be treated as dividends of ordinary income to the extent that they are made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. Such distributions ordinarily will be subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty, unless the distributions are treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such dividends are attributable). Under certain treaties, however, lower withholding rates generally applicable to dividends do not apply to dividends from a REIT. Certain certification and disclosure requirements must be satisfied for a non-U.S. holder to be exempt from withholding under the effectively connected income exemption. Dividends that are treated as effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business generally will not be subject to withholding but will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net basis at the regular rates, in the same manner as dividends paid to U.S. holders are subject to U.S. federal income tax. Any such dividends received by a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also be subject to an additional branch profits tax at a 30% rate (applicable after deducting U.S. federal income taxes paid on such effectively connected income) or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty.

Except as otherwise provided below, we expect to withhold U.S. federal income tax at the rate of 30% on any distributions made to a non-U.S. holder unless:

 

  (1)

a lower treaty rate applies and the non-U.S. holder furnishes an IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or other applicable documentation) evidencing eligibility for that reduced treaty rate; or

 

  (2)

the non-U.S. holder furnishes an IRS Form W-8ECI (or other applicable documentation) claiming that the distribution is income effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s trade or business.

Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits will not be taxable to a non-U.S. holder to the extent that such distributions do not exceed the adjusted tax basis of the holder’s capital stock, but rather will reduce the adjusted tax basis of such stock. To the extent that such distributions exceed the non-U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in such capital stock, they generally will give rise to gain from the sale or exchange of such stock, the tax treatment of which is described below. However, such excess distributions may be treated as dividend income for certain non-U.S. holders. For withholding purposes, we expect to treat all distributions as

 

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made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. However, amounts withheld may be refundable if it is subsequently determined that the distribution was, in fact, in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, provided that certain conditions are met.

Capital Gain Dividends and Distributions Attributable to a Sale or Exchange of United States Real Property Interests. Distributions to a non-U.S. holder that we properly designate as capital gain dividends, other than those arising from the disposition of a USRPI, generally should not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation, unless:

 

  (1)

the investment in our capital stock is treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such dividends are attributable), in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. holders with respect to such gain, except that a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also be subject to a branch profits tax of up to 30%, as discussed above; or

 

  (2)

the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are met, in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% on the non-U.S. holder’s capital gains (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of such non-U.S. holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the non-U.S. holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses.

Pursuant to the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act, which is referred to as “FIRPTA,” distributions to a non-U.S. holder that are attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of USRPIs, whether or not designated as capital gain dividends, will cause the non-U.S. holder to be treated as recognizing such gain as income effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business. Non-U.S. holders generally would be taxed at the regular rates applicable to U.S. holders, subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals. We also will be required to withhold and to remit to the IRS 21% of any distribution to non-U.S. holders attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of USRPIs. Distributions subject to FIRPTA may also be subject to a 30% branch profits tax in the hands of a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation. The amount withheld is creditable against the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability. However, any distribution with respect to any class of stock that is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury Regulations, on an established securities market located in the United States is not subject to FIRPTA, and therefore, not subject to the 21% U.S. withholding tax described above, if the non-U.S. holder did not own more than 10% of such class of stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of the distribution. Instead, such distributions generally will be treated as ordinary dividend distributions and subject to withholding in the manner described above with respect to ordinary dividends. In addition, distributions to certain non-U.S. publicly traded shareholders that meet certain record-keeping and other requirements (“qualified shareholders”) are exempt from FIRPTA, except to the extent owners of such qualified shareholders that are not also qualified shareholders own, actually or constructively, more than 10% of our capital stock. Furthermore, distributions to certain “qualified foreign pension funds” or entities all of the interests of which are held by such “qualified foreign pension funds” are exempt from FIRPTA. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these rules.

Retention of Net Capital Gains. Although the law is not clear on the matter, it appears that amounts we designate as retained net capital gains in respect of our capital stock should be treated with respect to non-U.S. holders as actual distributions of capital gain dividends. Under this approach, the non-U.S. holders may be able to offset as a credit against their U.S. federal income tax liability their proportionate share of the tax paid by us on such retained net capital gains and to receive from the IRS a refund to the extent their proportionate share of such tax paid by us exceeds their actual U.S. federal income tax liability. If we were to designate any portion of our net capital gain as retained net capital gain, non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the taxation of such retained net capital gain.

 

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Sale of Our Capital Stock. Except as described below under “—Redemption or Repurchase by Us,” gain realized by a non-U.S. holder upon the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax unless such stock constitutes a USRPI. In general, stock of a domestic corporation that constitutes a “United States real property holding corporation,” (“USRPHC”) will constitute a USRPI. We believe that we are a USRPHC. Our capital stock will not, however, constitute a USRPI so long as we are a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.” A “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” includes a REIT in which at all times during a five-year testing period less than 50% in value of its stock is held directly or indirectly by non-United States persons, subject to certain rules. For purposes of determining whether a REIT is a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity,” a person who at all applicable times holds less than 5% of a class of stock that is “regularly traded” is treated as a United States person unless the REIT has actual knowledge that such person is not a United States person. Proposed Treasury Regulations, if finalized, would provide additional guidance for determining whether a REIT is a domestically controlled qualified investment entity and clarify, among other things, that ownership by non-U.S. persons (other than persons treated as United States persons as described in the preceding sentence) will be determined by looking through pass-through entities and certain U.S. corporations. We believe, but cannot guarantee, that we are a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.” Because our common stock is (and, we anticipate, will continue to be) publicly traded, no assurance can be given that we will continue to be a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.”

Even if we do not qualify as a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” at the time a non-U.S. holder sells our capital stock, gain realized from the sale or other taxable disposition by a non-U.S. holder of such capital stock would not be subject to U.S. federal income tax under FIRPTA as a sale of a USRPI if:

 

  (1)

such class of stock is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury Regulations, on an established securities market such as the NYSE; and

 

  (2)

such non-U.S. holder owned, actually and constructively, 10% or less of such class of stock throughout the shorter of the five-year period ending on the date of the sale or other taxable disposition or the non-U.S. holder’s holding period.

In addition, dispositions of our capital stock by qualified shareholders are exempt from FIRPTA, except to the extent owners of such qualified shareholders that are not also qualified shareholders own, actually or constructively, more than 10% of our capital stock. Furthermore, dispositions of our capital stock by certain “qualified foreign pension funds” or entities all of the interests of which are held by such “qualified foreign pension funds” are exempt from FIRPTA. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these rules.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, gain from the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock not otherwise subject to FIRPTA will be taxable to a non-U.S. holder if either (a) the investment in our capital stock is treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such gain is attributable), in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. holders with respect to such gain, except that a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also be subject to the 30% branch profits tax (or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such gain, as adjusted for certain items, or (b) the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are met, in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to a 30% tax on the non-U.S. holder’s capital gains (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of the non-U.S. holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the non-U.S. holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses. In addition, even if we are a domestically controlled qualified investment entity, upon disposition of our capital stock, a non-U.S. holder may be treated as having gain from the sale or other taxable disposition of a USRPI if the non-U.S. holder (1) disposes of such stock within a 30-day period preceding the ex-dividend date of

 

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a distribution, any portion of which, but for the disposition, would have been treated as gain from the sale or exchange of a USRPI and (2) acquires, or enters into a contract or option to acquire, or is deemed to acquire, other shares of that stock during the 61-day period beginning with the first day of the 30-day period described in clause (1), unless such class of stock is “regularly traded” and the non-U.S. holder did not own more than 10% of such class of stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of the distribution described in clause (1).

If gain on the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, the non-U.S. holder would be required to file a U.S. federal income tax return and would be subject to regular U.S. federal income tax with respect to such gain in the same manner as a taxable U.S. holder (subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals). In addition, if the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, and if shares of the applicable class of our capital stock were not “regularly traded” on an established securities market, the purchaser of such capital stock generally would be required to withhold and remit to the IRS 15% of the purchase price.

Redemption or Repurchase by Us. A redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock will be treated under Section 302 of the Code as a distribution (and taxable as a dividend to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits) unless the redemption or repurchase satisfies one of the tests set forth in Section 302(b) of the Code and is therefore treated as a sale or exchange of the redeemed or repurchased shares. See “—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Redemption or Repurchase by Us.” Qualified shareholders and their owners may be subject to different rules, and should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of such rules. If the redemption or repurchase of shares is treated as a distribution, the amount of the distribution will be measured by the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received. See “—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Distributions Generally” above. If the redemption or repurchase of shares is not treated as a distribution, it will be treated as a taxable sale or exchange in the manner described above under “—Sale of Our Capital Stock.”

Taxation of Holders of Our Operating Partnership’s Debt Securities

The following summary describes the material U.S. federal income tax consequences of purchasing, owning and disposing of debt securities issued by our operating partnership. This discussion assumes the debt securities will be issued with less than a statutory de minimis amount of original issue discount for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In addition, this discussion is limited to persons purchasing the debt securities for cash at original issue and at their original “issue price” within the meaning of Section 1273 of the Code (i.e., the first price at which a substantial amount of the debt securities is sold to the public for cash).

U.S. Holders

Payments of Interest. Interest on a debt security generally will be taxable to a U.S. holder as ordinary income at the time such interest is received or accrued, in accordance with such U.S. holder’s method of accounting for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

Sale or Other Taxable Disposition. A U.S. holder will recognize gain or loss on the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other taxable disposition of a debt security. The amount of such gain or loss generally will be equal to the difference between the amount received for the debt security in cash or other property valued at fair market value (less amounts attributable to any accrued but unpaid interest, which will be taxable as interest to the extent not previously included in income) and the U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in the debt security. A U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in a debt security generally will be equal to the amount the U.S. holder paid for the debt security. Any gain or loss generally will be capital gain or loss, and will be long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. holder has held the debt security for more than one year at the time of such sale or other taxable disposition. Otherwise, such gain or loss will be short-term capital gain or loss. Long-term capital gains

 

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recognized by certain non-corporate U.S. holders, including individuals, generally will be taxable at reduced rates. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to limitations.

Non-U.S. Holders

Payments of Interest. Interest paid on a debt security to a non-U.S. holder that is not effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax or withholding, provided that:

 

   

the non-U.S. holder does not, actually or constructively, own 10% or more of our operating partnership’s capital or profits;

 

   

the non-U.S. holder is not a controlled foreign corporation related to our operating partnership through actual or constructive stock ownership; and

 

   

either (1) the non-U.S. holder certifies in a statement provided to the applicable withholding agent under penalties of perjury that it is not a United States person and provides its name and address; (2) a securities clearing organization, bank or other financial institution that holds customers’ securities in the ordinary course of its trade or business and holds the debt security on behalf of the non-U.S. holder certifies to the applicable withholding agent under penalties of perjury that it, or the financial institution between it and the non-U.S. holder, has received from the non-U.S. holder a statement under penalties of perjury that such holder is not a United States person and provides the applicable withholding agent with a copy of such statement; or (3) the non-U.S. holder holds its debt security directly through a “qualified intermediary” (within the meaning of the applicable Treasury Regulations) and certain conditions are satisfied.

If a non-U.S. holder does not satisfy the requirements above, such non-U.S. holder will be subject to withholding tax of 30%, subject to a reduction in or an exemption from withholding on such interest as a result of an applicable tax treaty. To claim such entitlement, the non-U.S. holder must provide the applicable withholding agent with a properly executed IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or other applicable documentation) claiming a reduction in or exemption from withholding tax under the benefit of an income tax treaty between the United States and the country in which the non-U.S. holder resides or is established.

If interest paid to a non-U.S. holder is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such interest is attributable), the non-U.S. holder will be exempt from the U.S. federal withholding tax described above. To claim the exemption, the non-U.S. holder must furnish to the applicable withholding agent a valid IRS Form W-8ECI, certifying that interest paid on a debt security is not subject to withholding tax because it is effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business within the United States.

Any such effectively connected interest generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at the regular rates. A non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also be subject to a branch profits tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such effectively connected interest, as adjusted for certain items.

The certifications described above must be provided to the applicable withholding agent prior to the payment of interest and must be updated periodically. Non-U.S. holders that do not timely provide the applicable withholding agent with the required certification, but that qualify for a reduced rate under an applicable income tax treaty, may obtain a refund of any excess amounts withheld by timely filing an appropriate claim for refund with the IRS. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their entitlement to benefits under any applicable income tax treaty.

 

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Sale or Other Taxable Disposition. A non-U.S. holder will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on any gain realized upon the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other taxable disposition of a debt security (such amount excludes any amount allocable to accrued and unpaid interest, which generally will be treated as interest and may be subject to the rules discussed above in “—Taxation of Holders of Our Operating Partnership’s Debt Securities—Non-U.S. Holders—Payments of Interest”) unless:

 

   

the gain is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such gain is attributable); or

 

   

the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year of the disposition and certain other requirements are met.

Gain described in the first bullet point above generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net income basis at the regular rates. A non-U.S. holder that is a corporation also may be subject to a branch profits tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such effectively connected gain, as adjusted for certain items.

A non-U.S. holder described in the second bullet point above will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on gain realized upon the sale or other taxable disposition of a debt security, which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of the non-U.S. holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the non-U.S. holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses.

Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding any applicable income tax treaties that may provide for different rules.

Information Reporting and Backup Withholding

U.S. Holders. A U.S. holder may be subject to information reporting and backup withholding when such holder receives payments on our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities or proceeds from the sale or other taxable disposition of such stock or debt securities (including a redemption or retirement of a debt security). Certain U.S. holders are exempt from backup withholding, including corporations and certain tax-exempt organizations. A U.S. holder will be subject to backup withholding if such holder is not otherwise exempt and:

 

   

the holder fails to furnish the holder’s taxpayer identification number, which for an individual is ordinarily his or her social security number;

 

   

the holder furnishes an incorrect taxpayer identification number;

 

   

the applicable withholding agent is notified by the IRS that the holder previously failed to properly report payments of interest or dividends; or

 

   

the holder fails to certify under penalties of perjury that the holder has furnished a correct taxpayer identification number and that the IRS has not notified the holder that the holder is subject to backup withholding.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against a U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS. U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their qualification for an exemption from backup withholding and the procedures for obtaining such an exemption.

Non-U.S. Holders. Payments of dividends on our capital stock or interest on our operating partnership’s debt securities generally will not be subject to backup withholding, provided the applicable withholding agent does

 

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not have actual knowledge or reason to know the holder is a United States person and the holder either certifies its non-U.S. status, such as by furnishing a valid IRS Form W-8BEN, W-8BEN-E or W-8ECI, or otherwise establishes an exemption. However, information returns are required to be filed with the IRS in connection with any distributions on our capital stock or interest on our operating partnership’s debt securities paid to the non-U.S. holder, regardless of whether such distributions constitute a dividend or whether any tax was actually withheld. In addition, proceeds of the sale or other taxable disposition of such stock or debt securities (including a retirement or redemption of a debt security) within the United States or conducted through certain U.S.-related brokers generally will not be subject to backup withholding or information reporting if the applicable withholding agent receives the certification described above and does not have actual knowledge or reason to know that such holder is a United States person, or the holder otherwise establishes an exemption. Proceeds of a disposition of such stock or debt securities conducted through a non-U.S. office of a non-U.S. broker generally will not be subject to backup withholding or information reporting.

Copies of information returns that are filed with the IRS may also be made available under the provisions of an applicable treaty or agreement to the tax authorities of the country in which the non-U.S. holder resides or is established.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against a non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.

Medicare Contribution Tax on Unearned Income

Certain U.S. holders that are individuals, estates or trusts are required to pay an additional 3.8% tax on, among other things, dividends on stock, interest on debt obligations and capital gains from the sale or other disposition of stock or debt obligations, subject to certain limitations. U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the effect, if any, of these rules on their ownership and disposition of our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities.

Additional Withholding Tax on Payments Made to Foreign Accounts

Withholding taxes may be imposed under Sections 1471 to 1474 of the Code (such sections commonly referred to as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (“FATCA”)) on certain types of payments made to non-U.S. financial institutions and certain other non-U.S. entities. Specifically, a 30% withholding tax may be imposed on dividends on our capital stock, interest on our operating partnership’s debt securities, or (subject to the proposed Treasury Regulations discussed below) gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities, in each case paid to a “foreign financial institution” or a “non-financial foreign entity” (each as defined in the Code), unless (1) the foreign financial institution undertakes certain diligence and reporting obligations, (2) the non-financial foreign entity either certifies it does not have any “substantial United States owners” (as defined in the Code) or furnishes identifying information regarding each substantial United States owner, or (3) the foreign financial institution or non-financial foreign entity otherwise qualifies for an exemption from these rules. If the payee is a foreign financial institution and is subject to the diligence and reporting requirements in clause (1) above, it must enter into an agreement with the U.S. Department of the Treasury requiring, among other things, that it undertake to identify accounts held by certain “specified United States persons” or “United States owned foreign entities” (each as defined in the Code), annually report certain information about such accounts, and withhold 30% on certain payments to non-compliant foreign financial institutions and certain other account holders. Foreign financial institutions located in jurisdictions that have an intergovernmental agreement with the United States governing FATCA may be subject to different rules.

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securities. While withholding under FATCA would have applied also to payments of gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of stock or debt securities on or after January 1, 2019, proposed Treasury Regulations eliminate FATCA withholding on payments of gross proceeds entirely. Taxpayers generally may rely on these proposed Treasury Regulations until final Treasury Regulations are issued. Because we may not know the extent to which a distribution is a dividend for U.S. federal income tax purposes at the time it is made, for purposes of these withholding rules we may treat the entire distribution as a dividend.

Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the potential application of withholding under FATCA to their investment in our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities.

Other Tax Consequences

State, local and non-U.S. income tax laws may differ substantially from the corresponding U.S. federal income tax laws, and this discussion does not purport to describe any aspect of the tax laws of any state, local or non-U.S. jurisdiction, or any U.S. federal tax other than income tax. You should consult your tax advisor regarding the effect of state, local and non-U.S. tax laws with respect to our tax treatment as a REIT and on an investment in our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities.

 

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SELLING SECURITY HOLDERS

Information about selling security holders, where applicable, will be set forth in a prospectus supplement, in a post-effective amendment or in filings we make with the SEC under the Exchange Act that are incorporated by reference.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We, the operating partnership or any of the selling security holders may sell the offered securities from time to time:

 

   

through underwriters or dealers;

 

   

through agents;

 

   

directly to one or more purchasers; or

 

   

through a combination of any of these methods of sale.

We will identify the specific plan of distribution, including any underwriters, dealers, agents or direct purchasers and their compensation in the applicable prospectus supplement.

In addition, we, or any selling stockholder, may enter into derivative transactions with third parties, or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the applicable prospectus supplement indicates, in connection with those derivatives, such third parties (or affiliates of such third parties) may sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including in short sale transactions. If so, such third parties (or affiliates of such third parties) may use securities pledged by us or the selling stockholders or borrowed from us, the selling stockholders or others to settle those sales or to close out any related open borrowings of stock, and may use securities received from us or the selling stockholders in settlement of those derivatives to close out any related open borrowings of stock. The third parties (or affiliates of such third parties) in such sale transactions will be underwriters and, if not identified in this prospectus, will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement (or a post-effective amendment). We, or any selling stockholders, may otherwise loan or pledge securities to a financial institution or other third party that in turn may sell the securities short using this prospectus and an applicable prospectus supplement. Such financial institution or other third party (or affiliates of such third parties) may transfer its economic short position to investors in our securities or in connection with a concurrent offering of other securities.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Certain legal matters will be passed upon for us by Latham & Watkins LLP, San Diego, California. Venable LLP, Baltimore, Maryland, has issued an opinion to us regarding certain matters of Maryland law. Verrill Dana LLP, Boston, Massachusetts, has issued an opinion to us regarding certain matters of Massachusetts law. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us, any selling security holders or any underwriters, dealers or agents, by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.

EXPERTS

Extra Space

The consolidated financial statements of Extra Space Storage Inc. appearing in Extra Space Storage Inc.’s Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2023, and the effectiveness of Extra Space Storage Inc.’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023 have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their reports thereon, included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such reports given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

Life Storage

The consolidated financial statements of Life Storage, Inc. and Life Storage LP appearing in Life Storage, Inc.’s and Life Storage LP’s combined Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2022, and the effectiveness of Life Storage, Inc.’s and Life Storage LP’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2022 have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their reports thereon, included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such reports given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

 

LOGO

$800,000,000

Extra Space Storage Inc.

Common Stock

We have entered into an equity distribution agreement with BMO Capital Markets Corp., BofA Securities, Inc., Citigroup Global Markets Inc., Jefferies LLC, J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, Regions Securities LLC, TD Securities (USA) LLC, Truist Securities, Inc., Wells Fargo Securities, LLC (each, a “sales agent” and, collectively, the “sales agents”) and the forward purchasers (as defined below) relating to shares of our common stock, $0.01 par value per share (“common stock”), offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus pursuant to a continuous offering program relating to the offering of shares of common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $800,000,000 through the sales agents, as our agents, or, if applicable, as forward sellers as agents for the applicable forward purchaser. In connection with entering into the equity distribution agreement, we are terminating the prior equity distribution agreement.

Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “EXR.” On April 12, 2024, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the NYSE was $140.69 per share.

Sales of shares of common stock, if any, under this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus may be made in transactions that are deemed to be “at the market” offerings as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), including sales made directly on or through the NYSE, on any other existing trading market for our common stock, or to or through a market maker. Sales of shares of our common stock may also be made by any method permitted by law, including but not limited to, in privately negotiated transactions, which may include sales of shares of our common stock to any sales agent as principal (including block trades), as we and the sales agent may agree. Each sales agent is not required to sell any specific number or dollar amount of shares of our common stock but, if and when instructed by us, will make all sales using commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices on mutually agreed terms between the sales agent and us.

The equity distribution agreement contemplates that, in addition to the issuance and sale by us of shares of our common stock to or through the sales agents, we may enter into separate forward sale agreements with each of Bank of Montreal, Bank of America, N.A., Citibank, N.A., Jefferies LLC, JPMorgan Chase Bank, National Association, Regions Securities LLC, The Toronto-Dominion Bank, Truist Bank, Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, or one of their respective affiliates (each a “forward purchaser” and, collectively, the “forward purchasers.”) If we enter into a forward sale agreement with any forward purchaser, we expect that such forward purchaser (or its affiliate) will attempt to borrow from third parties and sell, through the relevant sales agent, acting as sales agent for such forward purchaser, shares of our common stock to hedge such forward purchaser’s exposure under such forward sale agreement. We refer to a sales agent, when acting as sales agent for the relevant forward purchaser, as, individually, a “forward seller” and, collectively, the “forward sellers.” Unless otherwise expressly stated or the context otherwise requires, references herein to the “related” or “relevant” forward purchaser mean, with respect to any sales agent, the affiliate of such sales agent that is acting as forward purchaser or, if applicable, such sales agent acting in its capacity as forward purchaser. We will not receive any proceeds from any sale of shares of our common stock borrowed by a forward purchaser (or its affiliate) and sold through a forward seller. We currently expect to fully physically settle each forward sale agreement, if any, with the relevant forward purchaser on one or more dates specified by us on or prior to the maturity date of such forward sale agreement, in which case we expect to receive aggregate net cash proceeds at settlement equal to the number of shares specified in such forward sale agreement multiplied by the relevant forward price per share. However, subject to certain exceptions, we may also elect, in our sole discretion, to cash settle or net share settle all or any portion of our obligations under any forward sale agreement, in which case we may not receive any proceeds (in the case of cash settlement) or will not receive any proceeds (in the case of net share settlement), and we may owe cash (in the case of cash settlement) or shares of our common stock (in the case of net share settlement) to the relevant forward purchaser. See “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus supplement.

Each sales agent will receive from us compensation of up to two percent (2.0%) of the gross sales price of all shares sold to or through it under the equity distribution agreement. In connection with the sale of shares of common stock on our behalf, the sales agents may be deemed to be “underwriters” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of the sales agents may be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. In connection with each forward sale agreement, the applicable sales agent, as forward seller, will receive a commission, in the form of a reduction to the initial forward price under the related forward sale agreement, at a mutually agreed rate that will not (except as provided below) exceed, but may be lower than, 2.0% of the gross sales price per share of the borrowed shares of our common stock sold through such sales agent, as forward seller, during the applicable forward selling period for such shares (subject to certain possible adjustments to such gross sales price for daily accruals and any quarterly dividends having an “ex-dividend” date during such forward selling period).

Under the terms of the equity distribution agreement, we also may sell shares of our common stock to any sales agent, as principal for its own account (including block trades), at a price to be agreed upon at the time of sale. If we sell shares of common stock to a sales agent, as principal, we will enter into a separate terms agreement with the applicable sales agent and we will describe such agreement in a separate prospectus supplement or pricing supplement to the extent required by law.

We are organized and conduct our operations to qualify as a real estate investment trust (“REIT”) for U.S. federal income tax purposes. To assist us in complying with certain federal income tax requirements applicable to REITs, our charter contains certain restrictions relating to the ownership and transfer of our stock, including an ownership limit of 7.0% and a designated investment entity ownership limit of 9.8% on our common stock. See “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” beginning on page 33 of the accompanying prospectus.

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before buying any of these shares you should carefully read the discussion of material risks of investing in our common stock in “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-4 of this prospectus supplement and page 3 of the accompanying prospectus, as well as those described in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and other periodic reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) and incorporated herein by reference.

Neither the SEC nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

BMO Capital Markets    BofA Securities    Citigroup
Jefferies    J.P. Morgan    Regions Securities LLC
TD Securities    Truist Securities    Wells Fargo Securities

The date of this prospectus supplement is April 15, 2024


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You should rely only on the information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. We have not, and the sales agents have not, authorized anyone to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We are not, and the sales agents are not, making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus.

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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

     Page  

Summary

     S-1  

The Offering

     S-3  

Risk Factors

     S-4  

Forward-Looking Statements

     S-9  

Use of Proceeds

     S-11  

Plan of Distribution

     S-12  

Legal Matters

     S-17  

Experts

     S-17  

Information Incorporated by Reference

     S-18  

 

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SUMMARY

This document is in two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement, which describes the specific terms of this common stock offering. The second part, which is the accompanying prospectus, gives more general information, some of which may not apply to this offering. If the description of this offering varies between the prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, you should rely on the information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus supplement.

This summary may not contain all the information that you should consider before investing in our common stock. Before making an investment decision, you should read the entire prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein carefully, including the “Risk Factors” section in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and our other filings under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), that are incorporated herein by reference. Unless the context indicates otherwise, references in this prospectus supplement to “Extra Space Storage Inc.,” “Extra Space,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer to Extra Space Storage Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, including Extra Space Storage LP, our operating partnership, except in statements regarding qualification as a REIT, in which case such terms refer solely to Extra Space Storage Inc. References to “OP units” include common operating partnership units and preferred operating partnership units of Extra Space Storage LP.

Overview

We are a fully integrated, self-administered and self-managed REIT formed as a Maryland corporation on April 30, 2004, to own, operate, manage, acquire, develop and redevelop self-storage properties (“stores”). We closed our initial public offering on August 17, 2004. We were formed to continue the business of Extra Space Storage LLC and its subsidiaries, which had engaged in the self-storage business since 1977.

Substantially all of our business is conducted through Extra Space Storage LP (the “Operating Partnership”). Our primary assets are general partner and limited partner interests in the Operating Partnership. This structure is commonly referred to as an umbrella partnership REIT (“UPREIT”). We have elected to be taxed as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”). To the extent we continue to qualify as a REIT we will not be subject to U.S. federal tax, with certain exceptions, on our REIT taxable income that is distributed to our stockholders.

Our principal offices are located at 2795 East Cottonwood Parkway, Suite 300, Salt Lake City, Utah 84121, telephone number (801) 365-4600.

Our internet address is www.extraspace.com. We file our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to those reports with the SEC. You may obtain copies of these documents by visiting the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. In addition, as soon as reasonably practicable after such materials are furnished to the SEC, we make copies of these documents available to the public free of charge through the Investor Relations section of our website. The information included on our website is not, and should not be considered, a part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus.

We operate in two distinct segments: (1) self-storage operations; and (2) tenant reinsurance. Our self-storage operations activities include rental operations of wholly-owned stores. Tenant reinsurance activities include the reinsurance of risks relating to the loss of goods stored by tenants in our stores.

We own, operate, manage, provide lending to, acquire, develop and redevelop stores. We operate and manage our business by evaluating the operating performance of the properties for our entire portfolio which

 

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includes wholly-owned stores, stores in which we have a partial ownership interest and managed stores. Stores offer month-to-month rental of storage space for personal or business use.

As of December 31, 2023, we owned and/or operated 3,714 stores in 42 states, and Washington, D.C., comprising approximately 283 million square feet of net rentable space in approximately 2.6 million units.

Our tenant reinsurance activities include the reinsurance of risks relating to the loss of goods stored by tenants in our stores. Our customers have the option of purchasing insurance from a non-affiliated insurance company to cover certain losses to their goods stored at our facilities, as well as those we manage for third parties. A wholly-owned, consolidated subsidiary fully reinsures such policies and thereby assumes all risk of losses under these policies and receives reinsurance premiums substantially equal to the premiums collected from our tenants, from the non-affiliated insurance company.

As of December 31, 2023, we managed 1,337 stores for third party owners. Our management business enables us to generate increased revenues through management fees as well as expand our geographic footprint, data sophistication and scale with little capital investment. We believe this expanded footprint enables us to reduce our operating costs through economies of scale. In addition, our management business is a potential future acquisition pipeline.

We have a bridge lending program, under which we provide financing to third party self storage owners for operating properties that we manage. This program helps us increase our management business, create additional potential future acquisition opportunities, and strengthen our relationships with partners, all while generating interest and fee income. We generally originate mortgage loans and mezzanine loans, with the intent to sell a portion of the mortgage loans to third parties, while retaining our interests in the mezzanine loans. As of December 31, 2023, the total balance of bridge loans receivable was $594.7 million.

We have made investments in preferred stock of other self-storage companies. These investments benefit us by providing dividend income, increasing our management business, and creating additional potential future acquisition opportunities through relationships with the companies in which we invest.

Our primary business objectives are to maximize cash flow available for distribution to our stockholders and to achieve sustainable long-term growth in cash flow per share in order to maximize long-term stockholder value both at acceptable levels of risk. We continue to evaluate a range of growth initiatives and opportunities.

 

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THE OFFERING

 

Issuer

Extra Space Storage Inc., a Maryland corporation

 

Common stock offered

Shares of common stock with an aggregate offering price up to $800,000,000

 

NYSE symbol

“EXR”

 

Use of proceeds

We will contribute the net proceeds of this offering and from any forward sale agreement to our Operating Partnership. Our Operating Partnership intends to subsequently use such net proceeds to fund potential acquisition opportunities (which may include borrowings from the sales agents or their affiliates), to repay amounts outstanding from time to time under our lines of credit, and for other general corporate and working capital purposes. Pending use of the remaining net proceeds, we intend to invest these net proceeds in short-term interest-bearing investment grade instruments. See “Use of Proceeds.”

 

  We will not initially receive any proceeds from any sale of borrowed shares of our common stock through a forward seller in connection with a forward sale agreement. For additional information, see “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus supplement.

 

Accounting treatment of forward sales

For information concerning the expected accounting treatment of shares issuable upon settlement of any forward sale agreements, see “Plan of Distribution – Sales Through the Sales Agents as Forward Sellers” in this prospectus supplement.

 

Risk factors

You should carefully read the information contained under the caption “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement beginning on page S-4, our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and our other filings under the Exchange Act that are incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus before deciding to invest in shares of our common stock.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investment in the shares offered pursuant to this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus involves risks. You should carefully consider the risk factors incorporated by reference to our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or Current Reports on Form 8-K, and all the risks discussed below and the other information contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act, before deciding to purchase these shares. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered shares. Please also refer to the section below entitled “Forward-Looking Statements.”

Risks Related to this Offering

Future sales of shares of our common stock may depress the price of our shares.

We cannot predict whether future issuances of shares of our common stock, including shares issued pursuant to this offering, or the availability of shares of our common stock for resale in the open market will decrease the market price of our common stock. Any sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market, including upon the redemption of OP units, or the perception that such sales might occur, may cause the market price of our common stock to decline. Upon completion of this offering, the shares of our common stock sold in this offering will be freely tradable without restriction (other than any restrictions set forth in our charter relating to our qualification as a REIT).

The sales of shares of our common stock in this offering, the redemption of OP units in exchange for our common stock, the exercise of any options or the vesting of any restricted stock granted to directors, officers and other employees under our stock incentive plans, the issuance of our common stock or OP units in connection with property, portfolio or business acquisitions and other issuances of our common stock (including by means of our currently effective shelf registration statement) could have an adverse effect on the market price of our common stock. Furthermore, the existence of OP units, options and shares of our common stock reserved for issuance as restricted stock or upon redemption of OP units or exercise of options may adversely affect the terms upon which we may be able to obtain additional capital through the sale of equity securities.

In addition, future sales of shares of our common stock from time to time pursuant to the equity distribution agreement or otherwise, including the sale by us of shares in this offering or pursuant to any forward sale agreement, may have a dilutive effect on our earnings per share. The actual amount of dilution, if any, will be based on numerous factors, particularly the actual number of shares issued pursuant to the equity distribution agreement or in other transactions, the use of the net proceeds and the return generated by any investments acquired with the net proceeds, and cannot be determined at this time..

From time to time, we also may issue shares of our common stock or OP units in connection with property, portfolio or business acquisitions. We may grant demand or piggyback registration rights in connection with these issuances. Sales of substantial amounts of our common stock, or the perception that these sales could occur, may adversely affect the prevailing market price of our common stock or may adversely affect the terms upon which we may be able to obtain additional capital through the sale of equity securities.

Our share price could be volatile and could decline, resulting in a substantial or complete loss on our stockholders’ investment.

The stock markets (including the NYSE, on which we list our common stock) have experienced significant price and volume fluctuations. As a result, the market price of our common stock could be similarly volatile, and investors in our common stock may experience a decrease in the value of their shares, including decreases

 

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unrelated to our operating performance or prospects. The price of our common stock could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to a number of factors, including, among others:

 

   

our operating performance and the performance of similar companies;

 

   

actual or anticipated differences in our operating results;

 

   

failure to close pending acquisitions or complete property developments;

 

   

changes in our revenue or earnings estimates or recommendations by securities analysts, or our failure to meet such estimates;

 

   

publication of research reports about us or our industry by securities analysts;

 

   

changes in market valuations of similar companies;

 

   

adverse market reaction to any debt or equity securities we may issue or additional debt we may incur in the future;

 

   

additions and departures of key personnel;

 

   

strategic decisions by us or our competitors, such as acquisitions, divestments, spin-offs, joint ventures, strategic investments or changes in business strategy;

 

   

the passage of legislation or other regulatory developments that adversely affect us or our industry;

 

   

speculation in the press or investment community;

 

   

the realization of any of the other risk factors presented or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement;

 

   

actions by institutional stockholders;

 

   

changes in accounting principles;

 

   

natural disasters, war or terrorism;

 

   

impacts from healthcare emergencies future outbreak of other highly infectious or contagious diseases, including reduced demand for self-storage space and ancillary products and services such as tenant reinsurance, and potential decreases in occupancy and rental rates and staffing levels; and

 

   

general market conditions, including factors unrelated to our performance.

In the past, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against companies following periods of volatility in their stock price. This type of litigation could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention and resources, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

Future offerings of debt, which would be senior to our common stock upon liquidation, and/or preferred equity securities which may be senior to our common stock for purposes of dividend distributions or upon liquidation, may adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

In the future, we may increase our capital resources by making additional offerings of debt or preferred equity securities, including trust preferred securities, senior or subordinated notes and preferred stock. Upon liquidation, holders of our debt securities and shares of preferred stock and lenders with respect to other borrowings will receive distributions of our available assets prior to the holders of our common stock. Additional equity offerings may dilute the holdings of our existing stockholders or reduce the market price of our common stock, or both. Holders of our common stock are not entitled to preemptive rights or other protections against dilution. Because our decision to issue securities in any future offering will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing or nature of our future offerings. Thus, our stockholders bear the risk of our future offerings reducing the market price of our common stock and diluting their stock holdings in us.

 

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Our business operations may not generate the cash needed to make distributions on our capital stock or to service our indebtedness, and we may adjust our common stock dividend policy.

Our ability to make distributions on our common stock and payments on our indebtedness and to fund planned capital expenditures will depend on our ability to generate cash in the future. We cannot assure you that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations or that future borrowings will be available to us in an amount sufficient to enable us to make distributions on our common stock, to pay our indebtedness or to fund our other liquidity needs.

The decision to declare and pay dividends on shares of our common stock in the future, as well as the timing, amount and composition of any such future dividends, will be at the sole discretion of our board of directors in light of conditions then existing, including our earnings, financial condition, capital requirements, debt maturities, the availability of debt and equity capital, applicable REIT and legal restrictions, general overall economic conditions and other factors. Any change in our dividend policy could have a material adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.

Settlement provisions contained in any forward sale agreement subject us to certain risks.

Each forward purchaser will have the right to accelerate its forward sale agreement (with respect to all or any portion of the transaction under such forward sale agreement (except with respect to events specified in (i) and (iii) below, where accelerated settlement is limited to the portion of shares whose settlement would address the relevant event or that is affected by the relevant event) that it enters into with us and to require us to physically settle such shares on a date specified by such forward purchaser if:

(i) in such forward purchaser’s commercially reasonable judgment, it or its affiliate is unable to hedge (or maintain a hedge of) its exposure in a commercially reasonable manner under such forward sale agreement because (a) insufficient shares of our common stock have been made available for borrowing by securities lenders or (b) such forward purchaser or its affiliate would incur a stock borrow cost in excess of a specified threshold;

(ii) we declare any dividend, issue or distribution on shares of our common stock that constitutes an extraordinary dividend under such forward sale agreement or is payable in (a) cash in excess of specified amounts (unless it is an extraordinary dividend), (b) securities of another company that we acquire or own (directly or indirectly) as a result of a spin-off or similar transaction, or (c) any other type of securities (other than our common stock), rights, warrants or other assets for payment at less than the prevailing market price;

(iii) certain ownership thresholds applicable to such forward purchaser and its affiliates are or would be exceeded;

(iv) an event (a) is announced that if consummated would result in a specified extraordinary event (including certain mergers or tender offers, certain events involving our nationalization, our insolvency or a delisting of our common stock) or (b) occurs that would constitute a hedging disruption or change in law; or

(v) certain other events of default or termination events occur, including, among others, any material misrepresentation made by us in connection with such forward sale agreement or our insolvency (each as more fully described in the relevant forward sale agreement).

A forward purchaser’s decision to exercise its right to accelerate all or a portion of the settlement of its forward sale agreement and to require us to physically settle the relevant shares will be made irrespective of our interests, including our need for capital. In such cases, we could be required to issue and deliver shares of our common stock under the terms of the physical settlement provisions of the applicable forward sale agreement irrespective of our capital needs, which would result in dilution to our earnings per share and funds from operations per share.

The forward price that we expect to receive upon physical settlement of a forward sale agreement will be subject to adjustment on a daily basis based on a floating interest rate factor equal to a specified daily rate less a

 

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spread. In addition, the forward price will be subject to decrease on certain dates specified in the relevant forward sale agreement by the amount per share of quarterly dividends we expect to declare on our common stock during the term of such forward sale agreement and may be subject to adjustment for certain other dividends that are declared during the term of such forward sale agreement, as described more fully therein.

We will generally have the right, in lieu of physical settlement of any forward sale agreement, to elect cash or net share settlement in respect of any or all of the shares of our common stock subject to such forward sale agreement. If we elect to cash or net share settle all or any part of any forward sale agreement, we would expect the relevant forward purchaser or its affiliate to purchase shares of our common stock in secondary market transactions over an unwind period to:

 

   

return shares of our common stock to securities lenders to unwind such forward purchaser’s hedge (after taking into consideration any shares of our common stock to be delivered by us to such forward purchaser, in the case of net share settlement); and

 

   

if applicable, in the case of net share settlement, deliver shares of our common stock to us to the extent required upon settlement of such forward sale agreement.

If the price of our common stock at which these purchases are made by such forward purchaser (or its affiliate) exceeds the applicable forward price, we will pay such forward purchaser an amount in cash equal to such difference (if we elect to cash settle) or we will deliver to such forward purchaser a number of shares of our common stock having a market value equal to such difference (if we elect to net share settle). Any such difference could be significant and could require us to pay a significant amount of cash or deliver a significant number of shares of our common stock to such forward purchaser. See “Plan of Distribution.”

The purchase of shares of our common stock by a forward purchaser or its affiliate to unwind the forward purchaser’s hedge position could cause the price of our common stock to increase above the price that would have prevailed in the absence of those purchases (or prevent a decrease in such price), thereby increasing the amount of cash (in the case of cash settlement) or the number of shares (in the case of net share settlement) that we would owe such forward purchaser upon settlement of the applicable forward sale agreement or decrease the amount of cash (in the case of cash settlement) or the number of shares (in the case of net share settlement) that such forward purchaser would owe us upon settlement of the applicable forward sale agreement.

In case of our bankruptcy or insolvency, any forward sale agreement will automatically terminate, and we would not receive the expected net proceeds from any forward sales of our shares under those agreements.

If we file for or consent to a proceeding seeking a judgment in bankruptcy or insolvency or any other relief under any bankruptcy or insolvency law or other similar law affecting creditors’ rights, or we or a regulatory authority with jurisdiction over us presents a petition for our winding-up or liquidation, or we consent to such a petition, any forward sale agreement that is then in effect will automatically terminate. If any such forward sale agreement so terminates under these circumstances, we would not be obligated to deliver to the relevant forward purchaser any shares of our common stock not previously delivered, and the relevant forward purchaser would be discharged from its obligation to pay the applicable forward price per share in respect of any shares of our common stock not previously settled under the applicable forward sale agreement. Therefore, to the extent that there are any shares of our common stock with respect to which any forward sale agreement has not been settled at the time of the commencement of any such bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings, we would not receive the relevant forward price per share in respect of those shares of our common stock.

The U.S. federal income tax treatment with respect to cash settlement of a forward sale agreement is unclear and could jeopardize our ability to meet the REIT qualification requirements.

In the event that we elect to settle any forward sale agreement for cash and the relevant settlement price is different than the applicable forward price, we will either receive a cash payment from or make a cash payment

 

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to the relevant forward purchaser. Under Section 1032 of the Code, generally, no gains and losses are recognized by a corporation in dealing in its own shares, including pursuant to a “securities futures contract.” Although we believe that any amount received by us in exchange for our common stock would qualify for the exemption under Section 1032 of the Code, it is not entirely clear whether a forward sale agreement would fall under the purview of Section 1032 of the Code, and the U.S. federal income tax treatment of any cash settlement payment we receive is uncertain. In the event that we recognize a significant gain from the cash settlement of a forward sale agreement, or the IRS otherwise recharacterizes the tax treatment of the forward sale agreement in a manner that results in the recognition of income by the Company, we might not be able to satisfy the gross income requirements applicable to REITs under the Code. In the event that we are required to make a significant payment in cash to settle a forward agreement, we might not be able to satisfy the distribution requirements applicable to REITs under the Code, absent additional debt or equity financing. In either case, we may be able to rely upon the relief provisions under the Code in order to avoid the loss of our REIT status. However, even if the relief provisions apply, we may be subject to additional tax or penalties as discussed in the accompanying prospectus under “U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences.” In the event that these relief provisions were not available, we could lose our REIT status under the Code.

 

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents that we incorporate herein by reference contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (set forth in Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act). Also, documents we subsequently file with the SEC and incorporate by reference will contain forward-looking statements. In particular, statements pertaining to our capital resources, portfolio performance and results of operations contain forward-looking statements. Likewise, our pro forma financial statements and other pro forma information and our statements regarding anticipated growth in our funds from operations and anticipated market conditions, demographics and results of operations are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements involve numerous risks and uncertainties and you should not rely on them as predictions of future events. Forward-looking statements depend on assumptions, data or methods that may be incorrect or imprecise, and we may not be able to realize them. We do not guarantee that the transactions and events described will happen as described (or that they will happen at all). You can identify forward-looking statements by the use of forward-looking terminology such as “believes,” “expects,” “estimates,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “anticipates” or “intends” or the negative of such terms or other comparable terminology, or by discussions of strategy. The following factors, among others, could cause actual results and future events to differ materially from those set forth or contemplated in the forward-looking statements:

 

   

adverse changes in general economic conditions, the real estate industry and in the markets in which we operate;

 

   

failure to close pending acquisitions and developments on expected terms, or at all;

 

   

the risk that Life Storage, Inc.’s (“Life Storage”) business will not be fully integrated successfully or that such integration may be more difficult, time-consuming or costly than expected;

 

   

the uncertainty of expected future financial performance and results of the combined company following completion of the Life Storage merger;

 

   

the effect of competition from new and existing stores or other storage alternatives, which could cause rents and occupancy rates to decline;

 

   

potential liability for uninsured losses and environmental contamination;

 

   

the impact of the regulatory environment as well as national, state, and local laws and regulations including, without limitation, those governing REITs, tenant reinsurance and other aspects of our business, which could adversely affect our results;

 

   

our ability to recover losses under our insurance policies;

 

   

disruptions in credit and financial markets and resulting difficulties in raising capital or obtaining credit at reasonable rates or at all, which could impede our ability to grow;

 

   

changes in global financial markets and increased interest rates;

 

   

risks associated with acquisitions, dispositions and development of properties, including increased development costs due to additional regulatory requirements related to climate change and other factors;

 

   

reductions in asset valuations and related impairment charges;

 

   

our lack of sole decision-making authority with respect to our joint venture investments;

 

   

the effect of recent or future changes to U.S. tax laws;

 

   

the failure to maintain our REIT status for U.S. federal income tax purposes;

 

   

impacts from any outbreak of highly infectious or contagious diseases, including reduced demand for self-storage space and ancillary products and services such as tenant reinsurance, and potential

 

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decreases in occupancy and rental rates and staffing levels, which could adversely affect our results; and

 

   

economic uncertainty due to the impact of natural disasters, war or terrorism, which could adversely affect our business plan.

While forward-looking statements reflect our good faith beliefs, they are not guarantees of future performance. We disclaim any obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. For a further discussion of these and other factors that could impact our future results, performance or transactions, see the section above entitled “Risk Factors,” including the risks incorporated therein from our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus may be made in transactions that are deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act, including without limitation sales made directly on or through the NYSE, sales made to or through market makers and sales made through any other existing trading market or electronic communications network, and by any other method permitted by law, including but not limited to privately negotiated transactions, which may include sales of shares of our common stock to any sales agent as principal (including block trades) or forward seller, as we and the sales agent may agree. There is no guarantee that there will be any sales of our common stock pursuant to this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Actual sales, if any, of our common stock under this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus may be less than as set forth in this paragraph depending on, among other things, the market price of our common stock at the time of any such sale.

We will contribute the net proceeds of this offering and from any forward sale agreement to our Operating Partnership. Our Operating Partnership intends to subsequently use such net proceeds to fund potential acquisition opportunities (which may include borrowings from the sales agents or their affiliates), to repay amounts outstanding from time to time under our lines of credit, and for other general corporate and working capital purposes.

The outstanding indebtedness under our lines of credit was incurred primarily to fund acquisitions and preferred stock investments and for other general corporate purposes.

Certain of the sales agents and/or their affiliates are lenders under our secured line of credit and/or our senior unsecured line of credit. As described above, to the extent that we use a portion of the net proceeds from the sales under the equity distribution agreement or any forward sale agreement to repay amounts outstanding from time to time under our lines of credit or other borrowings from the sales agents or their affiliates, the sales agents or their affiliates will receive their proportionate share of any amount of such borrowings that are repaid with the proceeds of sales pursuant to the equity distribution agreement or any forward sale agreement. In particular, to the extent we use a portion of the net proceeds from such sales to repay our outstanding indebtedness under our lines of credit (which may include borrowings from the sales agents or their affiliates), certain of the sales agents or their affiliates may be lenders and may receive a portion of the net proceeds for the repayment of such indebtedness.

If we enter into a forward sale agreement with any forward purchaser, we expect that such forward purchaser (or its affiliate) will attempt to borrow from third parties and sell, through the relevant sales agent, as forward seller, shares of our common stock to hedge such forward purchaser’s exposure under such forward sale agreement. All of the net proceeds from the sale of such borrowed shares will be paid to the applicable forward purchaser (or one or more of its affiliates). Each forward purchaser will be either a sales agent or an affiliate of a sales agent. As a result, a sales agent or its affiliate will receive the net proceeds from any sale of borrowed shares of our common stock made in connection with any forward sale agreement.

Pending use of the remaining net proceeds, we intend to invest these net proceeds in short-term interest-bearing investment grade instruments.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

Plan of Distribution

Upon its acceptance of written instructions from us, each sales agent will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to solicit offers to purchase shares of our common stock, under the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the equity distribution agreement. Sales of shares of our common stock may be made in transactions that are deemed to be “at-the-market” offerings as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act, including sales made directly on or through the NYSE, the existing trading market for our common stock, on any other existing trading market for our common stock or to or through a market maker. Sales of shares of our common stock may also be made by any method permitted by law, including but not limited to, in privately negotiated transactions, which may include sales of shares of our common stock to any sales agent as a principal (including block trades), as we and the sales agent may agree. Each sales agent is not required to sell any specific number or dollar amount of shares of our common stock but, if and when instructed by us, will make all sales using commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices on mutually agreed terms between the sales agent and us. We will instruct each sales agent as to the amount of shares of our common stock to be sold by such sales agent. We may instruct each sales agent not to sell shares of our common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us in any instruction. We or each sales agent may suspend the offering of shares of our common stock upon proper notice and subject to other conditions.

Under the terms of the equity distribution agreement, we also may sell shares of our common stock to any sales agent, as principal for its own account (including block trades), at a price to be agreed upon at the time of sale. If we sell shares of common stock to a sales agent, as principal, we will enter into a separate terms agreement with the applicable sales agent, and we will describe such agreement in a separate prospectus supplement or pricing supplement to the extent required by law.

The equity distribution agreement contemplates that, in addition to the issuance and sale by us of shares of our common stock to or through the sales agents, we may enter into separate forward sale agreements with each of the forward purchasers. If we enter into a forward sale agreement with any forward purchaser, we expect that such forward purchaser (or its affiliate) will attempt to borrow from third parties and sell, through the relevant sales agent, acting as sales agent for such forward purchaser, shares of our common stock to hedge such forward purchaser’s exposure under such forward sale agreement. We will not receive any proceeds from any sale of shares of our common stock borrowed by a forward purchaser (or its affiliate) and sold through a forward seller.

Each sales agent will provide written confirmation to us no later than 8:30 a.m. (New York City time) on the trading day on the NYSE following the trading day in which shares of our common stock are sold under the equity distribution agreement. Each confirmation will include the number of shares of our common stock sold on the preceding day, the net proceeds to us and the compensation payable by us to such sales agent in connection with such sales.

We will pay each sales agent’s commissions for its services in acting as agent and/or principal in the sale of shares of our common stock. Each sales agent will be entitled to compensation in an amount of up to two percent (2.0%) of the gross sales price of all shares of our common stock sold to or through it under the equity distribution agreement. In connection with each forward sale agreement, the applicable sales agent, as forward seller, will receive a commission, in the form of a reduction to the initial forward price under the related forward sale agreement, at a mutually agreed rate that will not (except as provided below) exceed, but may be lower than, 2.0% of the gross sales price per share of the borrowed shares of our common stock sold through such sales agent, as forward seller, during the applicable forward selling period for such shares (subject to certain possible adjustments to such gross sales price for daily accruals and any dividends having an “ex-dividend” date during such forward selling period). We estimate that the total expenses for the offering, excluding compensation payable to the sales agents under the terms of the equity distribution agreement, will be approximately $400,000.

 

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Settlement for sales of shares of our common stock will occur on the second business day (and on and after May 28, 2024, the first business day, or any such earlier day as is industry practice for regular-way trading) following the date on which any sales are made, or on some other date that is agreed upon by us and each of the sales agents in connection with a particular transaction, in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

We will report at least quarterly the number of shares of our common stock sold through the sales agents, under the equity distribution agreement, the gross sales price per share, the net proceeds to us and the compensation paid by us to the sales agents in connection with the sale of shares of our common stock.

In connection with the sale of shares of our common stock on our behalf, each of the sales agents may be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation of the sales agents may be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to indemnify the sales agents and forward purchasers against specified liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute to payments that the sales agents or forward purchasers may be required to make because of those liabilities.

Unless otherwise terminated pursuant to the terms of the equity distribution agreement, the offering of shares of our common stock pursuant to the equity distribution agreement will terminate upon the earlier of (1) the sale of all shares of our common stock subject to the equity distribution agreement or (2) April 15, 2027. The equity distribution agreement may also be terminated (i) by each sales agent, forward purchasers or us upon five (5) days’ notice to the other parties, and (ii) by each sales agent or forward purchaser at any time in certain circumstances, including our failure to maintain a listing of shares of our common stock on the NYSE or the occurrence of a material adverse change in our company.

Sales Through the Sales Agents as Forward Sellers

If we enter into a forward sale agreement with any forward purchaser, we expect that such forward purchaser (or its affiliate) will attempt to borrow from third parties and sell, through the relevant sales agent, as forward seller, shares of our common stock to hedge such forward purchaser’s exposure under such forward sale agreement. All of the net proceeds from the sale of such borrowed shares will be paid to the applicable forward purchaser (or one or more of its affiliates). Each forward purchaser will be either a sales agent or an affiliate of a sales agent. As a result, a sales agent or its affiliate will receive the net proceeds from any sale of borrowed shares of our common stock made in connection with any forward sale agreement.

In connection with any forward sale agreement, we will deliver instructions to the relevant sales agent directing such sales agent, as forward seller, to sell the applicable borrowed shares of our common stock on behalf of the relevant forward purchaser. Upon its acceptance of such instructions, such sales agent has agreed to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell such shares of our common stock, as forward seller on behalf of such forward purchaser, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the equity distribution agreement. We may instruct such sales agent as to the amount of common stock to be sold by it as forward seller and may also instruct such sales agent not to sell such common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above a price designated by us. We or the applicable sales agent may at any time immediately suspend the offering of shares of our common stock through such sales agent, as forward seller, upon notice to the other parties.

Pursuant to a forward sale agreement, we will have the right to issue and deliver to the forward purchaser party thereto a specified number of shares of our common stock on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth therein, or, alternatively, to elect cash settlement or net share settlement, for all or any portion of such shares. If we elect or are deemed to have elected to physically settle any forward sale agreement by delivering shares of our common stock, we will receive an amount of cash from the relevant forward purchaser equal to the product of (1) the forward price per share under such forward sale agreement and (2) the number of shares of our common stock as to which we have elected or are deemed to have elected physical settlement, subject to the price

 

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adjustment and other provisions of such forward sale agreement. The initial forward price per share under each forward sale agreement will equal the product of (1) an amount equal to one minus the applicable forward selling commission and (2) the volume weighted average price per share at which the borrowed shares of our common stock were sold pursuant to the equity distribution agreement by the relevant sales agent, as forward seller, during the applicable forward selling period for such shares to hedge the relevant forward purchaser’s exposure under such forward sale agreement (subject to certain possible adjustments to such gross sales price for daily accruals and certain dividends having an “ex-dividend” date during such forward selling period). Thereafter, the forward price will be subject to adjustment on a daily basis based on a floating interest rate factor equal to a specified daily rate less a spread. In addition, the forward price will be subject to decrease on certain dates specified in the relevant forward sale agreement by the amount per share of quarterly dividends we expect to declare on our common stock during the term of such forward sale agreement. If the specified daily rate is less than the applicable spread on any day, the interest rate factor will result in a daily reduction of the forward price.

We expect that, before any issuance of shares of our common stock upon physical settlement or net share settlement of any forward sale agreement, the shares issuable upon settlement of such forward sale agreement will be reflected in our diluted earnings per share calculations using the treasury stock method. Under this method, the number of shares of our common stock used in calculating diluted earnings per share and funds from operations per share will be deemed to be increased by the excess, if any, of the number of shares that would be issued upon physical settlement of such forward sale agreement over the number of shares that could be purchased by us in the market (based on the average market price during the relevant forward selling period specified in such forward sale agreement) using the proceeds receivable upon settlement (based on the adjusted forward price at the end of the relevant reporting period).

Consequently, prior to physical or net share settlement of the forward sale agreement and subject to the occurrence of certain events, we anticipate there will be no dilutive effect on our earnings per share or funds from operations per share as a result of such forward sale agreement except during periods when the average market price of our common stock is above the per share adjusted forward price of such forward sale agreement, subject to increase or decrease based on a specified daily rate less a spread, and subject to decrease by amounts related to expected dividends on our common stock during the term of that particular forward sale agreement. However, if we decide to physically or net share settle any forward sale agreement, delivery of shares of our common stock by us will result in dilution to our earnings per share and funds from operations per share.

We will generally have the right, in lieu of physical settlement of any forward sale agreement, to elect cash or net share settlement in respect of any or all of the shares of our common stock subject to such forward sale agreement. If we elect to cash or net share settle all or any part of any forward sale agreement, we would expect the relevant forward purchaser or its affiliate to purchase shares of our common stock in secondary market transactions over an unwind period to:

 

   

return shares of our common stock to securities lenders to unwind such forward purchaser’s hedge (after taking into consideration any shares of our common stock to be delivered by us to such forward purchaser, in the case of net share settlement); and

 

   

if applicable, in the case of net share settlement, deliver shares of our common stock to us to the extent required upon settlement of such forward sale agreement.

If the price of our common stock at which these purchases by such forward purchaser (or its affiliate) are made is below the relevant forward price, such forward purchaser will pay us such difference in cash (if we elect to cash settle) or deliver to us a number of shares of our common stock having a market value equal to such difference (if we elect to net share settle). If the price of our common stock at which these purchases are made by such forward purchaser (or its affiliate) exceeds the applicable forward price, we will pay such forward purchaser an amount in cash equal to such difference (if we elect to cash settle) or we will deliver to such forward purchaser a number of shares of our common stock having a market value equal to such difference (if we elect to net share settle). Any such difference could be significant and could result in our receipt of a significant amount

 

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of cash or number of shares of our common stock from such forward purchaser or require us to pay a significant amount of cash or deliver a significant number of shares of our common stock to such forward purchaser.

In addition, the purchase of shares of our common stock by a forward purchaser or its affiliate to unwind the forward purchaser’s hedge position could cause the price of our common stock to increase above the price that would have prevailed in the absence of those purchases (or prevent a decrease in such price), thereby increasing the amount of cash (in the case of cash settlement) or the number of shares (in the case of net share settlement) that we would owe such forward purchaser upon settlement of the applicable forward sale agreement or decrease the amount of cash (in the case of cash settlement) or the number of shares (in the case of net share settlement) that such forward purchaser would owe us upon settlement of the applicable forward sale agreement.

Each forward purchaser will have the right to accelerate its forward sale agreement (with respect to all or any portion of the transaction under such forward sale agreement (except with respect to events specified in (i) and (iii) below, where accelerated settlement is limited to the portion of shares whose settlement would address the relevant event or that is affected by the relevant event) that it enters into with us and to require us to physically settle such shares on a date specified by such forward purchaser if:

(i) in such forward purchaser’s commercially reasonable judgment, it or its affiliate is unable to hedge (or maintain a hedge of) its exposure in a commercially reasonable manner under such forward sale agreement because (a) insufficient shares of our common stock have been made available for borrowing by securities lenders or (b) such forward purchaser or its affiliate would incur a stock borrow cost in excess of a specified threshold;

(ii) we declare any dividend, issue or distribution on shares of our common stock that constitutes an extraordinary dividend under such forward sale agreement or is payable in (a) cash in excess of specified amounts (unless it is an extraordinary dividend), (b) securities of another company that we acquire or own (directly or indirectly) as a result of a spin-off or similar transaction, or (c) any other type of securities (other than our common stock), rights, warrants or other assets for payment at less than the prevailing market price;

(iii) certain ownership thresholds applicable to such forward purchaser and its affiliates are or would be exceeded;

(iv) an event (a) is announced that if consummated would result in a specified extraordinary event (including certain mergers or tender offers, certain events involving our nationalization, our insolvency or a delisting of our common stock) or (b) occurs that would constitute a hedging disruption or change in law; or

(v) certain other events of default or termination events occur, including, among others, any material misrepresentation made by us in connection with such forward sale agreement or our insolvency (each as more fully described in the relevant forward sale agreement).

A forward purchaser’s decision to exercise its right to accelerate all or a portion of the settlement of its forward sale agreement and to require us to physically settle the relevant shares will be made irrespective of our interests, including our need for capital. In such cases, we could be required to issue and deliver shares of our common stock under the terms of the physical settlement provisions of the applicable forward sale agreement irrespective of our capital needs, which would result in dilution to our earnings per share and funds from operations per share.

In addition, upon certain events of bankruptcy or insolvency relating to us, the forward sale agreements will terminate without further liability of the parties thereto. Following any such termination, we would not issue any shares of our common stock pursuant to such forward sale agreement agreements, and we would not receive any proceeds pursuant to the forward sale agreements.

 

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The descriptions of certain provisions of the forward sale agreements appearing above and elsewhere in this prospectus supplement are not complete and are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, the terms and provisions of such forward sale agreements. A form of the forward sale agreement is included as an exhibit to the equity distribution agreement, and the equity distribution agreement has been or will be filed as an exhibit to a document incorporated by reference in the accompanying prospectus and may be obtained as described under “Where You Can Find More Information” in the accompanying prospectus.

Other Relationships

Certain of the sales agents and their affiliates (1) have mortgage commitments on several of our properties, (2) have engaged in, and may in the future engage in, investment banking, commercial banking and other commercial dealings in the ordinary course of business with us or our affiliates and (3) have received, or may in the future receive, customary fees and commissions for these transactions.

In addition, an affiliate of Wells Fargo Securities, LLC is a lender under our secured line of credit and affiliates of BMO Capital Markets Corp., BofA Securities, Inc., Citigroup Global Markets Inc., J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, Regions Securities LLC, TD Securities (USA) LLC, Truist Securities, Inc. and Wells Fargo Securities, LLC, are lenders under our senior unsecured line of credit. Proceeds from any sales of shares of our common stock pursuant to this prospectus supplement may be used to repay amounts outstanding from time to time under our lines of credit or other borrowings from the sales agents or their affiliates. As a result, those sales agents or their affiliates will receive their proportionate share of any amount of such borrowings that are repaid with the proceeds of this offering. See “Use of Proceeds.”

Further, in the ordinary course of its business activities, each sales agent and its affiliates may make or hold a broad array of investments and actively trade debt and equity securities (or related derivative securities) and financial instruments (including bank loans) for their own account and for the accounts of their customers. Such investments and securities activities may involve securities and/or instruments of ours or our affiliates. Each sales agent and its affiliates may also make investment recommendations and/or publish or express independent research views in respect of such securities or financial instruments and may hold, or recommend to clients that they acquire, long and/or short positions in such securities and instruments.

Listing on the New York Stock Exchange

Our shares of common stock are listed on the NYSE under the symbol “EXR.”

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Certain legal matters will be passed upon for us by Latham & Watkins LLP, San Diego, California. Fried, Frank, Harris, Shriver & Jacobson LLP will act as counsel and pass on certain legal matters for the sales agents and the forward purchasers. Venable LLP, Baltimore, Maryland, will issue an opinion to us regarding certain matters of Maryland law, including the validity of the common stock to be issued in connection with this offering. Latham & Watkins LLP may rely upon the opinion of Venable LLP. Ballard Spahr LLP, Baltimore, Maryland, will issue an opinion to the sales agents and the forward purchasers regarding certain matters of Maryland law, including the validity of the common stock to be issued in connection with this offering. Fried, Frank, Harris, Shriver & Jacobson LLP may rely upon the opinion of Ballard Spahr LLP.

EXPERTS

Extra Space

The consolidated financial statements of Extra Space Storage Inc. appearing in Extra Space Storage Inc.’s Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2023, and the effectiveness of Extra Space Storage Inc.’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023 have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their reports thereon, included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such reports given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

Life Storage

The consolidated financial statements of Life Storage, Inc. and Life Storage LP appearing in Life Storage, Inc.’s and Life Storage LP’s combined Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2022, and the effectiveness of Life Storage, Inc.’s and Life Storage LP’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2022 have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their reports thereon, included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such reports given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information we file with the SEC into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference herein is an important part of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. The incorporated documents contain significant information about us, our business and our finances. Any information contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or in any document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus will be deemed to have been modified or superseded to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or in any other document we subsequently file with the SEC that also is incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference herein modifies or supersedes the original statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to be a part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. We incorporate by reference the following documents we filed with the SEC (excluding those portions that are deemed “furnished” to the SEC pursuant to applicable rules and regulations):

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023, filed with the SEC on February 29, 2024;

 

   

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on June 12, 2023 (excluding Exhibits 99.2 and 99.3 thereto), August  18, 2023, January  17, 2024, January  19, 2024 and April 5, 2024;

 

   

the information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K from our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on April 3, 2024; and

 

   

the description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A filed on August 4, 2004 (File No. 001-32269), including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating this description.

All documents that we file with the SEC pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act on or after the date of this prospectus supplement and prior to the termination of the offering of any securities made under this prospectus supplement (excluding any portions of such documents that are deemed “furnished” to the SEC pursuant to applicable rules and regulations) will also be considered to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and will automatically update and supersede the information in this prospectus supplement and any previously filed documents.

If you request, either orally or in writing, we will provide you with a copy of any or all documents that are incorporated by reference. Such documents will be provided to you free of charge, but will not contain any exhibits, unless those exhibits are incorporated by reference into the document. Requests should be addressed to Extra Space Storage Inc., 2795 East Cottonwood Parkway, Suite 300, Salt Lake City, Utah 84121, Attn: Investor Relations, telephone: (801) 365-4600.

 

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$800,000,000

 

Common Stock

 

 

 

LOGO

 

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

 

 

 

BMO Capital Markets   BofA Securities   Citigroup
Jefferies   J.P. Morgan   Regions Securities LLC
TD Securities   Truist Securities   Wells Fargo Securities

 

 

April 15, 2024

 

 

 


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PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.

The following table is an estimate of the expenses that we may incur in connection with the securities being registered hereby. We will pay all of the costs identified below.

 

Securities and Exchange Commission Registration Fee

   $ (1)  

FINRA Filing Fee

   $ (1)(2)  

New York Stock Exchange Supplemental Listing Fee

   $ (1)(2)  

Printing and Engraving Expenses

   $ (1)(2)  

Legal Fees and Expenses

   $ (1)(2)  

Accounting Fees and Expenses

   $ (1)(2)  

Transfer Agent Fees and Expenses

   $ (1)(2)  

Trustee Fees and Expenses

   $ (1)(2)  

Depositary Fees and Expenses

   $ (1)(2)  

Warrant Agent Fees and Expenses

   $ (1)(2)  

Miscellaneous

   $ (1)(2)  
  

 

 

 

Total

   $ (1)(2)  

 

(1)

Pursuant to Rules 456(b) and 457(r) under the Securities Act, the SEC registration fee will be paid at the time of any particular offering of securities under the registration statement, and is therefore not currently determinable.

(2)

These fees are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly cannot be estimated at this time.

Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

Maryland law permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision limiting the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages except for liability resulting from (1) actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or (2) active and deliberate dishonesty established by a final judgment and which is material to the cause of action. Our charter contains such a provision which eliminates such liability to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.

Our charter authorizes us, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law, to obligate ourselves to indemnify and to pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding to (1) any present or former director or officer or (2) any individual who, while a director or officer of our company and at the request of us, serves or has served as a director, officer, partner or trustee of another corporation, REIT, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise. Our bylaws require our company, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law, to indemnify and to pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding to (a) any present or former director or officer who is made, or threatened to be made, a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity or (b) any individual who, while a director or officer of our company and at the request of us, serves or has served as a director, officer, partner or trustee of another corporation, REIT, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise and who is made, or threatened to be made, a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity. Our charter and bylaws also permit us, with the approval of our board of directors, to indemnify and advance expenses to any person who served a predecessor of our company in any of the capacities described above and to any employee or agent of our company or a predecessor of our company.

The MGCL requires a corporation (unless its charter provides otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any

 

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proceeding to which he or she is made, or threatened to be made, a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity. The MGCL permits a corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made, or threatened to be made, a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that (1) the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and (a) was committed in bad faith or (b) was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty, (2) the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services or (3) in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful. However, under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation may not indemnify for an adverse judgment in a suit by or in the right of the corporation or for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, unless in either case, a court orders indemnification and then only for expenses. In addition, the MGCL requires us, as a condition to advancing expenses, to obtain (x) a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by us and (y) a written undertaking by him or her or on his or her behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by us if it shall ultimately be determined that the standard of conduct was not met.

We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our directors and executive officers. The indemnification agreements require, among other matters, that we indemnify our directors and executive officers to the maximum extent permitted by law and advance to the directors and executive officers all related expenses, subject to reimbursement if it is subsequently determined that indemnification is not permitted. Under these agreements, we must also indemnify and advance all expenses incurred by directors and executive officers seeking to enforce their rights under the indemnification agreements and may cover directors and executive officers under our directors’ and officers’ liability insurance. Although indemnification agreements offer substantially the same scope of coverage afforded the bylaws, they provide greater assurance to directors and executive officers that indemnification will be available, because, as contracts, they cannot be modified unilaterally in the future by the board of directors to eliminate the rights they provide.

Insofar as the foregoing provisions permit indemnification of directors, officers or persons controlling us for liability arising under the Securities Act, we have been informed that, in the opinion of the SEC, this indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

The amended and restated partnership agreement of the Operating Partnership requires it to indemnify us, our affiliates and any individual or entity acting on our behalf against any loss or damage, including legal fees and court costs incurred by the person, by reason of anything it may do or refrain from doing for or on behalf of the operating partnership or in connection with its business or affairs unless it is determined that indemnification is not permitted.

 

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Item 16. Exhibits.

The following exhibits are filed as part of, or incorporated by reference into, this registration statement on Form S-3:

 

Exhibit

Number

  

Exhibit Description

   Incorporated by Reference      Filed
Herewith
   Form    Date    Number  
  1.1*    Form of Underwriting Agreement            
  1.2    Equity Distribution Agreement, dated April  15, 2024, by and among Extra Space Storage Inc., Extra Space Storage LP, BMO Capital Markets Corp., BofA Securities, Inc., Citigroup Global Markets Inc., Jefferies LLC, J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, Regions Securities LLC, TD Securities (USA) LLC, Truist Securities, Inc. and Wells Fargo Securities, LLC             X
  2.1    Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of April  2, 2023, by and among Extra Space Storage Inc., Extra Space Storage LP, Eros Merger Sub, LLC, Eros OP Merger Sub, LLC, Life Storage, Inc. and Life Storage LP    8-K    April 3, 2023      2.1     
  2.2    Amendment to Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of May  18, 2023, by and among Extra Space Storage Inc., Extra Space Storage LP, Eros Merger Sub, LLC, Eros OP Merger Sub, LLC, Life Storage, Inc. and Life Storage LP    8-K    July 20, 2023      2.2     
  3.1    Articles of Amendment and Restatement of Extra Space Storage Inc.    S-11    August 10, 2004      3.1     
  3.2    Articles of Amendment of Extra Space Storage Inc., dated September 28, 2007.    8-K    October 3, 2007      3.1     
  3.3    Articles of Amendment of Extra Space Storage Inc., dated August 29, 2013.    8-K    August 29, 2013      3.1     
  3.4    Articles of Amendment of Extra Space Storage Inc., dated May 21, 2014.    8-K    May 28, 2014      3.1     
  3.5    Second Amended and Restated Bylaws of Extra Space Storage Inc.    8-K    January 17, 2018      3.1     
  3.6    Fourth Amended and Restated Agreement of Limited Partnership of Extra Space Storage LP.    8-K    December 6, 2013      10.1     
  4.1    Junior Subordinated Note    10-K    February 26, 2010      4.3     
  4.2    Indenture, dated as of May  11, 2021, among Extra Space Storage LP, as issuer, Extra Space Storage Inc., ESS Holdings Business Trust I and ESS Holdings Business Trust II, as guarantors, and Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, as trustee.    8-K    May 11, 2021      4.1     

 

II-3


Table of Contents

Exhibit

Number

  

Exhibit Description

   Incorporated by Reference      Filed
Herewith
 
   Form    Date    Number  
  4.3    First Supplemental Indenture, dated as of May  11, 2021, among Extra Space Storage LP, as issuer, Extra Space Storage Inc., ESS Holdings Business Trust I and ESS Holdings Business Trust II, as guarantors, and Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, as trustee, including the form of the Notes and the Guarantee.    8-K    May 11, 2021      4.2     
  4.4    Second Supplemental Indenture, dated as of September  22, 2021, among Extra Space Storage LP, as issuer, Extra Space Storage Inc., ESS Holdings Business Trust I and ESS Holdings Business Trust II, as guarantors, and Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, as trustee, including the form of the Notes and the Guarantee.    8-K    September 22, 2021      4.2     
  4.5    Third Supplemental Indenture, dated as of March  31, 2022, among Extra Space Storage LP, as issuer, Extra Space Storage Inc., ESS Holdings Business Trust I and ESS Holdings Business Trust II, as guarantors, and Computershare Trust Company, N.A., as trustee, including the form of the Notes and the Guarantee.    8-K    March 31, 2022      4.2     
  4.6    Fourth Supplemental Indenture, dated as of March  28, 2023, among Extra Space Storage LP, as issuer, Extra Space Storage Inc., ESS Holdings Business Trust I and ESS Holdings Business Trust II, as guarantors, and Computershare Trust Company, N.A., as trustee, including the form of the Notes and the Guarantee.    8-K    March 28, 2023      4.2     
  4.7    Fifth Supplemental Indenture, dated as of June  16, 2023, among Extra Space Storage LP, as issuer, Extra Space Storage Inc., ESS Holdings Business Trust I and ESS Holdings Business Trust II, as guarantors, and Computershare Trust Company, N.A., as trustee, including the form of the Notes and the Guarantee.    8-K    June 16, 2023      4.2     
  4.8    Sixth Supplemental Indenture, dated as of July  25, 2023, among Extra Space Storage LP, as issuer, Extra Space Storage Inc., ESS Holdings Business Trust I and ESS Holdings Business Trust II, as guarantors, and Computershare Trust Company, N.A., as trustee, including the form of the Notes and the Guarantee.    8-K    July 25, 2023      4.4     
  4.9    Seventh Supplemental Indenture, dated as of July  25, 2023, among Extra Space Storage LP, as issuer, Extra Space Storage Inc., ESS Holdings Business Trust I and ESS Holdings Business Trust II, as guarantors, and Computershare Trust Company, N.A., as trustee, including the form of the Notes and the Guarantee.    8-K    July 25, 2023      4.5     

 

II-4


Table of Contents

Exhibit

Number

  

Exhibit Description

   Incorporated by Reference      Filed
Herewith
   Form      Date    Number  
  4.10    Eighth Supplemental Indenture, dated as of July  25, 2023, among Extra Space Storage LP, as issuer, Extra Space Storage Inc., ESS Holdings Business Trust I and ESS Holdings Business Trust II, as guarantors, and Computershare Trust Company, N.A., as trustee, including the form of the Notes and the Guarantee.      8-K      July 25, 2023      4.6     
  4.11    Ninth Supplemental Indenture, dated as of July  25, 2023, among Extra Space Storage LP, as issuer, Extra Space Storage Inc., ESS Holdings Business Trust I and ESS Holdings Business Trust II, as guarantors, and Computershare Trust Company, N.A., as trustee, including the form of the Notes and the Guarantee.      8-K      July 25, 2023      4.7     
  4.12    Tenth Supplemental Indenture, dated as of July  25, 2023, among Extra Space Storage LP, as issuer, Extra Space Storage Inc., ESS Holdings Business Trust I and ESS Holdings Business Trust II, as guarantors, and Computershare Trust Company, N.A., as trustee, including the form of the Notes and the Guarantee.      8-K      July 25, 2023      4.8     
  4.13    Eleventh Supplemental Indenture, dated as of December  1, 2023, among Extra Space Storage LP, as issuer, Extra Space Storage Inc., ESS Holdings Business Trust I and ESS Holdings Business Trust II, as guarantors, and Computershare Trust Company, N.A., as trustee, including the form of the Notes and the Guarantee.      8-K      December 1, 2023      4.2     
  4.14    Twelfth Supplemental Indenture, dated as of January  19, 2024, among Extra Space Storage LP, as issuer, Extra Space Storage Inc., ESS Holdings Business Trust I and ESS Holdings Business Trust II, as guarantors, and Computershare Trust Company, N.A., as trustee, including the form of the Notes and the Guarantee.      8-K      January 19, 2024      4.2     
  4.15*    Form of Certificate for Preferred Stock of Extra Space Storage Inc.            
  4.16*    Form of Deposit Agreement            
  4.17*    Form of Warrant            
  4.18*    Form of Warrant Agreement            
  4.19*    Form of Rights Agreement            
  4.20*    Form of Debt Security            
  5.1    Opinion of Venable LLP             X
  5.2    Opinion of Venable LLP             X

 

II-5


Table of Contents

Exhibit

Number

  

Exhibit Description

   Incorporated by Reference      Filed
Herewith
   Form      Date    Number  
  5.3    Opinion of Latham & Watkins LLP             X
  5.4    Opinion of Verrill Dana LLP             X
  8.1    Opinion of Latham & Watkins LLP as to tax matters             X
 22.1    Issuer and Guarantors of Guaranteed Securities      10-K      February 29, 2024      22.1     
 23.1    Consent of Ernst & Young LLP             X
 23.2    Consent of Ernst & Young LLP             X
 24.1    Power of Attorney (included on the Signature Page to the Registration Statement)             X
 25.1    Statement of Eligibility under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 of Computershare Trust Company, N.A. (Form T-1)             X
107    Filing Fee Table             X

 

*

To be filed by amendment, or incorporated by reference, as applicable, in connection with the offering of a particular class or series of securities.

Item 17. Undertakings.

 

(a)

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

 

  (1)

To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

  (i)

To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

 

  (ii)

To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

 

  (iii)

To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) of this section do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act, that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is a part of the registration statement;

 

  (2)

That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

II-6


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  (3)

To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

  (5)

That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

 

  (A)

each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

  (B)

each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5) or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

 

  (6)

That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities:

The undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

  (i)

any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

  (ii)

any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

 

  (iii)

the portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

 

  (iv)

any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

(b) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(h) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the

 

II-7


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registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

II-8


Table of Contents

SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, each of the registrants certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Salt Lake City, State of Utah, on April 15, 2024.

 

EXTRA SPACE STORAGE INC.
 By:  

/s/ Joseph D. Margolis

  Joseph D. Margolis
  Chief Executive Officer

 

EXTRA SPACE STORAGE LP

By: ESS Holdings Business Trust I,

its General Partner

 By:   /s/ Gwyn G. McNeal
 

 

  Gwyn G. McNeal
  Trustee


Table of Contents

POWER OF ATTORNEY

Each of the undersigned officers and directors of the registrant hereby severally constitutes and appoints Joseph D. Margolis, P. Scott Stubbs and Gwyn G. McNeal, and each of them singly (with full power to each of them to act alone), such person’s true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, with full power of substitution and resubstitution in each of them, for him or her and in his or her name, place and stead, and in any and all capacities, to file and sign any and all amendments, including post-effective amendments, to this registration statement and any other registration statement for the same offering that is to be effective under Rule 462(b) of the Securities Act, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the SEC, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, and each of them, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in connection therewith as fully to all intents and purposes as he or she might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents, or any of them, or their or his or her substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Signature

  

Title

 

Date

/s/ Joseph D. Margolis

Joseph D. Margolis

  

Director and

Chief Executive Officer

(Principal Executive Officer)

  April 15, 2024

/s/ P. Scott Stubbs

P. Scott Stubbs

  

Executive Vice President and

Chief Financial Officer

(Principal Financial Officer)

  April 15, 2024

/s/ Grace Kunde

Grace Kunde

  

Senior Vice President, Accounting

and Finance

(Principal Accounting Officer)

  April 15, 2024

/s/ Kenneth M. Woolley

Kenneth M. Woolley

  

Chairman of the Board

  April 15, 2024

/s/ Mark Barberio

Mark Barberio

  

Director

  April 15, 2024

/s/ Jennifer Blouin

Jennifer Blouin

  

Director

  April 15, 2024

/s/ Joseph J. Bonner

Joseph J. Bonner

  

Director

  April 15, 2024

/s/ Gary Crittenden

Gary Crittenden

  

Director

  April 15, 2024

/s/ Susan Harnett

Susan Harnett

  

Director

  April 15, 2024

/s/ Diane Olmstead

Diane Olmstead

  

Director

  April 15, 2024


Table of Contents

/s/ Roger Porter

Roger Porter

  

Director

  April 15, 2024

/s/ Spencer F. Kirk

Spencer F. Kirk

  

Director

  April 15, 2024

/s/ Joseph V. Saffire

Joseph V. Saffire

  

Director

  April 15, 2024

/s/ Jefferson S. Shreve

Jefferson S. Shreve

  

Director

  April 15, 2024

/s/ Julia Vander Ploeg

Julia Vander Ploeg

  

Director

  April 15, 2024
EX-1.2

Exhibit 1.2

Execution Version

 

 

EXTRA SPACE STORAGE INC.

Up to $800,000,000 of Shares of Common Stock

EQUITY DISTRIBUTION AGREEMENT

Dated: April 15, 2024

 

 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

         Page  

SECTION 1.

 

Description of Securities

     2  

SECTION 2.

 

Placements

     4  

SECTION 3.

 

Sale of Placement Securities by the Sales Agents and the Forward Sellers

     6  

SECTION 4.

 

Suspension of Sales

     7  

SECTION 5.

 

Representations and Warranties

     8  

SECTION 6.

 

Sale and Delivery of Securities; Settlement

     26  

SECTION 7.

 

Covenants of the Company

     29  

SECTION 8.

 

Payment of Expenses

     37  

SECTION 9.

 

Conditions of the Sales Agents’ and Forward Purchasers’ Obligations

     38  

SECTION 10.

 

Indemnification

     40  

SECTION 11.

 

Contribution

     42  

SECTION 12.

 

Representations, Warranties and Agreements to Survive Delivery

     44  

SECTION 13.

 

Termination of Agreement

     44  

SECTION 14.

 

Notices

     45  

SECTION 15.

 

Parties

     46  

SECTION 16.

 

Adjustments for Stock Splits

     46  

SECTION 17.

 

Governing Law and Time

     47  

SECTION 18.

 

Effect of Headings

     47  

SECTION 19.

 

Counterparts

     47  

SECTION 20.

 

Interpretation

     47  

SECTION 21.

 

Recognition of the U.S. Special Resolution Regimes

     47  

SECTION 22.

 

Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses

     48  

SECTION 23.

 

Absence of Fiduciary Relationship

     48  

SECTION 24.

 

Trial by Jury

     49  

 

(i)


EXHIBITS

 

Exhibit A-1

 

  

Form of Issuance Placement Notice

Exhibit A-2

 

  

Form of Forward Placement Notice

Exhibit B

 

  

Authorized Individuals for Placement Notices and Acceptances

Exhibit C

 

  

Compensation

Exhibit D-1

 

  

Form of Opinion of Latham & Watkins LLP

Exhibit D-2

 

  

Form of Opinion of Latham & Watkins LLP – Tax

Exhibit D-3

 

  

Form of Opinion of Venable LLP

Exhibit E

 

  

Officer Certificate

Exhibit F

 

  

Issuer Pricing Free Writing Prospectus

Exhibit G

 

  

Form of Terms Agreement

Exhibit H

 

  

Form of Forward Confirmation

 

(ii)


Extra Space Storage Inc.

Up to $800,000,000 of Shares of Common Stock

EQUITY DISTRIBUTION AGREEMENT

 

April 15, 2024

 

As Sales Agents:

 

  

BMO Capital Markets Corp.

151 West 42nd Street

New York, NY 10036

 

BofA Securities, Inc.

One Bryant Park

New York, New York 10036

 

Citigroup Global Markets Inc.

388 Greenwich Street

New York, New York 10013

 

Jefferies LLC

520 Madison Avenue

New York, New York 10022

 

J.P. Morgan Securities LLC

383 Madison Avenue

New York, New York 10179

  

Regions Securities LLC

615 South College Street, Suite 600

Charlotte, NC 28202

 

TD Securities (USA) LLC

1 Vanderbilt Avenue, 11th Floor

New York, NY 10017

 

Truist Securities, Inc.

3333 Peachtree Road NE, 11th Floor

Atlanta, Georgia 30326

 

Wells Fargo Securities, LLC

500 West 33rd Street, 14th

New York, NY 10001

 

As Forward Purchasers:

 

  

Bank of Montreal

55 Bloor Street West, 18th Floor

Toronto, ON M5X 1A1

Canada

 

Bank of America, N.A.

c/o BofA Securities, Inc.

One Bryant Park

New York, New York 10036

 

Citibank, N.A.

388 Greenwich Street

New York, New York 10013

 

Jefferies LLC

520 Madison Avenue

New York, New York 10022

  

JPMorgan Chase Bank, National Association

383 Madison Avenue

New York, New York 10179

 

Regions Securities LLC

615 South College Street, Suite 600

Charlotte, NC 28202

 

The Toronto-Dominion Bank

c/o TD Securities (USA) LLC

1 Vanderbilt Avenue, 11th Floor

New York, NY 10017

 

Truist Bank

3333 Peachtree Road NE, 11th Floor

Atlanta, Georgia 30326

 

Wells Fargo Bank, National Association

500 West 33rd Street, 14th Floor

New York, NY 10001

 

1


Ladies and Gentlemen:

Extra Space Storage Inc., a Maryland corporation (the “Company”), and Extra Space Storage LP, a Delaware limited partnership (the “Operating Partnership”), each confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with BMO Capital Markets Corp., BofA Securities, Inc., Citigroup Global Markets Inc., Jefferies LLC, J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, Regions Securities LLC, TD Securities (USA) LLC, Truist Securities, Inc. and Wells Fargo Securities, LLC, as sales agents, principals and/or forward sellers (in any such capacity, each a “Sales Agent” and collectively, the “Sales Agents”) and Bank of Montreal, Bank of America, N.A., Citibank, N.A., Jefferies LLC, JPMorgan Chase Bank, National Association, Regions Securities LLC, The Toronto-Dominion Bank, Truist Bank and Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, or one of their respective affiliates, as forward purchasers (in such capacity, each a “Forward Purchaser” and collectively the “Forward Purchasers”). For purposes of clarity, it is understood and agreed by the parties hereto that if Securities (as defined below) are offered or sold through any Sales Agent acting as forward seller for the applicable Forward Purchaser, then such Sales Agent, as forward seller, shall be acting as Sales Agent for such Forward Purchaser with respect to the offering and sale of such Securities, and, except in cases where this Agreement (as defined below) expressly refers to a Sales Agent acting as Sales Agent for the Company or unless otherwise expressly stated or the context otherwise requires, references in this Agreement to any Sales Agent acting as Sales Agent shall also be deemed to apply to such Sales Agent when acting as forward seller, mutatis mutandis. For the avoidance of doubt, the terms Sales Agent, Sales Agents, Forward Purchaser and Forward Purchasers shall mean either the singular or plural as the context requires).

SECTION 1. Description of Securities. Each of the Company and the Operating Partnership agrees that, from time to time during the term of this Agreement, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, the Company may (i) issue and sell through one or more of the Sales Agents, each acting as agent and/or principal, shares (the “Securities”) of common stock, par value $0.01 per share, of the Company (the “Common Stock”) and (ii) instruct the applicable Sales Agents, as forward sellers, to offer and sell Securities having an aggregate sale price of up to the “Maximum Amount” of $800,000,000 (the “Placement Securities,” which hereinafter refers to, collectively, the Issuance Securities and the Forward Hedge Securities (each, as defined below) offered and sold pursuant to this Agreement). The obligations of the Sales Agents under this Agreement shall be several, and not joint. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto agree that compliance with the limitations set forth in this Section 1 regarding the number and aggregate sale price of the Placement Securities issued and sold under this Agreement, any Terms Agreement or any Confirmation (each, as defined below) shall be the sole responsibility of the Company, and none of the Sales Agents nor the Forward Purchasers shall have any obligation in connection with such compliance. The issuance and sale of the Placement Securities through or to the Sales Agents and sale through the Sales Agents as forward sellers will be effected pursuant to the Registration Statement (as defined below) filed by the Company and which became effective upon filing under Rule 462(e) (“Rule 462(e)”) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) thereunder (the “Securities Act”), although nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as requiring the Company to use the Registration Statement to issue the Securities. The Company agrees that whenever it determines to sell Securities directly to any Sales Agent as principal it will enter into a separate written agreement with such Sales Agent containing the terms and conditions of such sale substantially in the form of Exhibit G hereto (each, a “Terms Agreement”). For purposes hereof, “Forward Hedge

 

2


Securities” means all Securities borrowed by a Forward Purchaser or its affiliate and offered or sold by its affiliated Sales Agent acting as forward seller in connection with any Forward Transaction (as defined below) that has occurred or may occur in accordance with the terms and conditions of this Agreement and any related Confirmations. “Issuance Securities” means all Placement Securities other than the Forward Hedge Securities.

The Company and the Operating Partnership agree that whenever the Company determines to enter into one or more forward stock purchase transactions with any of the Forward Purchasers, the Company and any of the applicable Forward Purchasers will enter into one or more separate letter agreements (each, a “Confirmation” and, collectively, the “Confirmations”) containing the terms and conditions substantially in the form of Exhibit H hereto, relating to such sale in accordance with Section 2 hereof. Under each Confirmation, the Company will, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in such Confirmation and in this Agreement, deliver to the applicable Forward Purchaser, or an affiliate thereof (including the Sales Agent affiliated with such Forward Purchaser), up to the maximum number of shares of Securities as may be sold in accordance with this Agreement in connection with such Confirmation. In connection with any Confirmation entered into as contemplated by this Agreement, it is contemplated that the applicable Forward Purchaser will attempt to borrow and then offer, through its affiliated Sales Agent, acting as forward seller and sales agent on behalf of such Forward Purchaser, the applicable Securities for sale on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in this Agreement.

The Company has filed, or will file, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Act, with the Commission an automatic shelf registration statement on Form S-3ASR, including a base prospectus, relating to certain securities, including the Securities to be issued from time to time by the Company, and which incorporates by reference documents that the Company has filed or will file in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder (the “Exchange Act”). The Company has prepared a prospectus supplement specifically relating to the Securities (the “Prospectus Supplement”) to the base prospectus included as part of such automatic shelf registration statement. The Company will furnish to the Sales Agents and the Forward Purchasers (or their affiliated Sales Agents acting as forward sellers), for use by the Sales Agents and the Forward Purchasers (or their affiliated Sales Agents acting as forward sellers), copies of the prospectus included as part of such registration statement, as supplemented by the Prospectus Supplement, relating to the Securities. Except where the context otherwise requires, such automatic shelf registration statement, as amended when it became effective, including all documents filed as part thereof or incorporated by reference therein (the “Incorporated Documents”), and including any information contained in a Prospectus (as defined below) subsequently filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act (“Rule 424(b)”) or deemed to be a part of such automatic shelf registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B under the Securities Act (“Rule 430B”), is herein called the “Registration Statement.” The Registration Statement at the time it originally became effective is herein called the “Original Registration Statement.” The base prospectus, including all documents incorporated therein by reference, included in the Registration Statement, as it may be supplemented by the Prospectus Supplement, in the form in which such prospectus and/or Prospectus Supplement have most recently been filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) is herein called the “Prospectus.” Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents incorporated by reference therein, and any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement

 

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or the Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing after the execution hereof of any document with the Commission deemed to be incorporated by reference therein. For purposes of this Agreement, all references to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or to any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to include any copy filed with the Commission pursuant to the Commission’s Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval system (“EDGAR”).

SECTION 2. Placements.

(a) Each time that the Company wishes to issue Issuance Securities hereunder (each, an “Issuance Placement”), it will notify the applicable Sales Agent by email notice (or other method mutually agreed to in writing by the Company and such Sales Agent) containing the parameters in accordance with which it desires the Securities to be sold, which shall at a minimum include the number of Issuance Securities, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number of Issuance Securities that may be sold in any one day and any minimum price below which sales may not be made (an “Issuance Placement Notice”), a form of which containing such minimum sales parameters necessary is attached hereto as Exhibit A-1. The applicable Sales Agent then in receipt of an Issuance Placement Notice is herein referred to as the “Current Sales Agent”. There may be only one Current Sales Agent per Trading Day (as defined herein). The Issuance Placement Notice shall originate from any of the individuals from the Company set forth on Exhibit B (with a copy to each of the other individuals from the Company listed on such Exhibit B), and shall be addressed to each of the individuals from the Current Sales Agent set forth on Exhibit B, as such Exhibit B may be amended from time to time. If the Current Sales Agent wishes to accept such proposed terms included in the Issuance Placement Notice (which it may decline to do so for any reason in its sole discretion) or, following discussion with the Company, wishes to accept amended terms, the Current Sales Agent will, prior to 8:30 a.m. (New York City time) on the Business Day (as defined below) following the Business Day on which such Issuance Placement Notice is delivered to the Current Sales Agent, issue to the Company a notice by email (or other method mutually agreed to in writing by the parties) addressed to all of the individuals from the Company and the Current Sales Agent (set forth on Exhibit B) setting forth the terms that the Current Sales Agent is willing to accept. Where the terms provided in the Issuance Placement Notice are amended as provided for in the immediately preceding sentence, such terms will not be binding on the Company or the Current Sales Agent until the Company delivers to the Current Sales Agent an acceptance by email (or other method mutually agreed to in writing by the parties) of all of the terms of such Issuance Placement Notice, as amended (the “Issuance Acceptance”), which email shall be addressed to all of the individuals from the Company and the Current Sales Agent set forth on Exhibit B. The Issuance Placement Notice (as amended by the corresponding Issuance Acceptance, if applicable) shall be effective upon receipt by the Company of the Current Sales Agent’s acceptance of the terms of the Issuance Placement Notice or upon receipt by the Current Sales Agent of the Company’s Issuance Acceptance, as the case may be, unless and until (i) the entire amount of the Issuance Securities has been sold, (ii) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in the first sentence of this paragraph, the Company terminates the Issuance Placement Notice, (iii) the Company issues a subsequent Issuance Placement Notice with parameters superseding those on the earlier dated Issuance Placement Notice, (iv) this Agreement has been terminated under the provisions of Section 13 hereof or (v) either party shall have suspended the sale of the Issuance Securities in accordance with Section 4 below; provided, however, that any such notice shall not affect or impair either party’s obligations with respect to any Placement Securities sold hereunder prior to the

 

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receipt of such notice. The amount of any discount, commission or other compensation to be paid by the Company to the Current Sales Agent in connection with the sale of the Issuance Securities shall be calculated in accordance with the terms set forth on Exhibit C, as mutually agreed to in writing by the parties and, together with any sale of the Forward Hedge Securities in connection with a Forward Transaction, collectively the “Placements” and each, a “Placement.”

(b) Subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the relevant Confirmation, on any Trading Day during the term on which the conditions set forth in Section 9 hereof have been satisfied, the Company may request to enter into a Forward Transaction (together, with any sale of the Issuance Securities in connection with an Issuance Placement, collectively, the “Placements” and each, a “Placement”), by delivering a written notice (which notice shall specify that it relates to a “Forward Transaction”) to the designated Forward Purchaser and its affiliated Sales Agent (as forward seller), containing the parameters of the Forward Transaction it desires in accordance with this Agreement, which shall at a minimum include the number of Forward Hedge Securities, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number of Forward Hedge Securities that may be sold in any one day, any minimum price below which sales may not be made and certain specified terms to be completed in the related Confirmation (a “Forward Placement Notice” and, together with any Issuance Placement Notice(s), collectively, the “Placement Notices” and each, a “Placement Notice”), a form of which is attached hereto as Exhibit A-2. The Forward Placement Notice shall originate from any of the individuals from the Company set forth on Exhibit B (with a copy to each of the other individuals from the Company listed on such Exhibit B), and shall be addressed to each of the individuals from the Forward Purchaser and its affiliated Sales Agent set forth on Exhibit B, as such Exhibit B may be amended from time to time. If the Forward Purchaser wishes to accept such proposed terms included in the Forward Placement Notice (which it may decline to do so for any reason in its sole discretion) or, following discussion with the Company, wishes to accept amended terms, the Forward Purchaser or its affiliated Sales Agent will, prior to 8:30 a.m. (New York City time) on the Business Day following the Business Day on which such Forward Placement Notice is delivered, issue to the Company a notice by email (or other method mutually agreed to in writing by the parties) addressed to all of the individuals from the Company, the Forward Purchaser and its affiliated Sales Agent (set forth on Exhibit B) setting forth the terms that the Forward Purchaser is willing to accept. Where the terms provided in the Forward Placement Notice are amended as provided for in the immediately preceding sentence, such terms will not be binding on the Company, the Forward Purchaser or its affiliated Sales Agent until the Company delivers to the Forward Purchaser and its affiliated Sales Agent an acceptance by email (or other method mutually agreed to in writing by the parties, which may, for the avoidance of doubt, be in the form a fully executed Confirmation reflecting such amended terms) of all of the terms of such Forward Placement Notice, as amended (the “Forward Acceptance” and, together with any Issuance Acceptance(s), collectively, the “Acceptances” and each, an “Acceptance”), which email shall be addressed to all of the individuals from the Company, the Forward Purchaser and its affiliated Sales Agent set forth on Exhibit B. The Forward Placement Notice (as amended by the corresponding Forward Acceptance, if applicable) shall be effective upon receipt by the Company of the Forward Purchaser’s acceptance of the terms of the Forward Placement Notice or upon receipt by the Forward Purchaser and its affiliated Sales Agent of the Company’s Forward Acceptance, as the case may be.

(c) It is expressly acknowledged and agreed that neither the Company nor the Current Sales Agent or Forward Purchaser will have any obligation whatsoever with respect to a Placement

 

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or any Placement Securities unless and until the Company delivers a Placement Notice to the Current Sales Agent or Forward Purchaser, as applicable, and either (i) the Current Sales Agent or Forward Purchaser accepts the terms of such Placement Notice or (ii) where the terms of such Placement Notice are amended, the Company accepts such amended terms by means of an Acceptance pursuant to the terms set forth above, and then only upon the terms specified in the Placement Notice (as amended by the corresponding Acceptance, if applicable) and herein. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Placement Notice (as amended by the corresponding Acceptance, if applicable), the terms of the Placement Notice (as amended by the corresponding Acceptance, if applicable) will control. For the purposes hereof, “Business Day” means any day other than a Saturday, a Sunday or a legal holiday or a day on which banks are required to be closed in New York City, New York and “Trading Day” means any day the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”) is open for trading during its regular trading session, other than a day on which NYSE is scheduled to close prior to its regular weekday closing time.

SECTION 3. Sale of Placement Securities by the Sales Agents and the Forward Sellers.

(a) Subject to the provisions of Section 6(a) hereof, the Current Sales Agent, for the period specified in the Issuance Placement Notice (as amended by the corresponding Issuance Acceptance, if applicable), will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell the Issuance Securities up to the amount specified, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of such Placement Notice (as amended by the corresponding Issuance Acceptance, if applicable). The Current Sales Agent will provide written confirmation, including by email or fax transmission, to the Company no later than 8:30 a.m. (New York City time) on the Trading Day immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Issuance Securities hereunder setting forth the number of Issuance Securities sold on such day, the compensation payable by the Company to the Current Sales Agent pursuant to Section 2 hereof with respect to such sales, and the net proceeds payable to the Company, with an itemization of the deductions made by the Current Sales Agent (as set forth in Section 6(b) hereof) from the gross proceeds that it receives from such sales. Subject to the terms of the Issuance Placement Notice (as amended by the corresponding Issuance Acceptance, if applicable), the Current Sales Agent may sell Issuance Securities by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market” offering as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act (“Rule 415”), including without limitation sales made directly on the NYSE, on any other existing trading market for the Common Stock or to or through a market maker. Subject to the terms of the Issuance Placement Notice (as amended by the corresponding Issuance Acceptance, if applicable), the Current Sales Agent may also sell Issuance Securities by any other method permitted by law, including but not limited to in privately negotiated transactions.

(b) If the Company wishes to issue and sell the Issuance Securities other than as set forth in Section 2(a) of this Agreement, it may elect, in its sole discretion, to notify a Sales Agent of the proposed terms of such sale. If the Sales Agent, acting as principal, wishes to accept such proposed terms (which it may decline to do for any reason in its sole discretion) or, following discussions with the Company, wishes to accept amended terms, the Sales Agent and the Company will enter into a Terms Agreement setting forth the terms of such Placement. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of any Terms Agreement, the terms of such Terms Agreement will control. For avoidance of doubt, nothing contained in this Agreement shall be construed to require the Company to engage any Sales Agent in connection with the offer and sale of any of the Company’s securities, including shares of its Common Stock, whether in connection with an underwritten offering or otherwise.

 

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(c) For each Forward Transaction, the Company shall be obligated to enter into a Confirmation with a Forward Purchaser if and when the Company delivers a Forward Placement Notice to such Forward Purchaser and its affiliated Sales Agent as forward seller, and the Forward Purchaser and such affiliate have accepted such Forward Placement Notice (as amended by the corresponding Forward Acceptance, if applicable). In the event that, in the commercially reasonable judgment of a Forward Purchaser (or an agent thereof) a “Stock Borrow Event” (as defined in the Confirmation and, if applicable, the related Forward Placement Notice as amended by the corresponding Forward Acceptance, if applicable) occurs with respect to any Forward Hedge Securities up to the Forward Hedge Number (as defined below), then the obligation herein of such Forward Purchaser and its affiliated Sales Agent as forward seller with respect to sales of Forward Hedge Securities in connection with such instruction shall only extend to the aggregate number of Forward Hedge Securities that the Forward Purchaser (or its agent) is able to borrow without incurring a Stock Borrow Event.

(d) Subject to the terms and conditions of this Agreement and as set forth in each Confirmation, upon acceptance of a Forward Placement Notice by a Forward Purchaser and its affiliated Sales Agent, and unless the sale of the Forward Hedge Securities described therein has been declined, suspended, or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement or the relevant Confirmation, such Forward Purchaser will use commercially reasonable efforts to borrow Forward Hedge Securities up to the maximum “Number of Shares” specified in the related Forward Placement Notice or Confirmation, subject to the terms and conditions of this Agreement (the “Forward Hedge Number”) accepted by such Forward Purchaser and its affiliated Sales Agent as forward seller will use commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell such Forward Hedge Securities, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of such Forward Placement Notice and Confirmation.

(e) In the event the Company engages any Sales Agent or Forward Purchaser for a sale of Placement Securities that would constitute the sale of a “block” under Rule 10b-18(a)(5) under the Exchange Act or a “distribution,” within the meaning of Rule 100 of Regulation M under the Exchange Act, the Company and the Sales Agent or Forward Purchaser, as applicable, will agree to compensation and deliverables that are customary with respect to such transactions.

(f) Each sale of the Placement Securities to or through any Sales Agent shall be made in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, any relevant Confirmation or, if applicable, a Terms Agreement. The commitment of any Sales Agent to purchase the Issuance Securities pursuant to any Terms Agreement shall be deemed to have been made on the basis of the representations and warranties made by and on behalf of the Company, the Operating Partnership, and the Subsidiaries herein contained and shall be subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth.

SECTION 4. Suspension of Sales. The Company, the Current Sales Agent or the applicable Sales Agent acting as forward seller, as the case may be, may, upon notice to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Exhibit B, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) or by telephone (confirmed immediately by verifiable facsimile transmission or email correspondence to each of the

 

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individuals of the other party set forth on Exhibit B), suspend any sale of Placement Securities; provided, however, that such suspension shall not affect or impair either party’s obligations with respect to any Placement Securities sold hereunder or under any Confirmation or Terms Agreement prior to the receipt of such notice. Each of the parties agrees that no such notice under this Section 4 shall be effective against the other unless it is made to one of the individuals of the other party named on Exhibit B hereto, as such exhibit may be amended from time to time.

SECTION 5. Representations and Warranties.

(a) Representations and Warranties by the Company and the Operating Partnership. Each of the Company and the Operating Partnership, jointly and severally, represents and warrants to each Sales Agent and Forward Purchaser as of the date hereof and as of each Representation Date (as defined below) on which a certificate is required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(o) of this Agreement, as of the time of each sale of any Placement Securities pursuant to this Agreement, any Confirmation or any Terms Agreement (each such time, an “Applicable Time”) and as of each Settlement Date (as defined below), and agrees with each Sales Agent and Forward Purchaser, as follows:

(1) Compliance with Registration Requirements. At the time of filing the Original Registration Statement, the Company met the requirements for use of Form S-3ASR under the Securities Act, and the offering and sale of the Securities as contemplated hereby, complies with, the requirements of Rule 415. The Original Registration Statement was filed by the Company with the Commission not earlier than three years prior to the date hereof. The Original Registration Statement became effective under the Securities Act upon filing with the Commission. The Registration Statement is an “automatic shelf registration statement,” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act (“Rule 405”), and the Securities have been and remain eligible for registration by the Company on an automatic shelf registration statement. The Company is a “well-known seasoned issuer” as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. No stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or any part thereof has been issued under the Securities Act and no proceedings for that purpose have been instituted or are pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, are contemplated by the Commission. No order preventing or suspending the use of any preliminary prospectus or the Prospectus has been issued and no proceeding for that purpose has been instituted or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened or contemplated by the Commission or the securities authority of any jurisdiction. Any request on the part of the Commission for additional information has been complied with.

At the respective times the Original Registration Statement and any post-effective amendments thereto became effective, at each deemed effective date pursuant to Rule 430B(f)(2) and at each Settlement Date, the Original Registration Statement and any amendments and supplements thereto complied, complies and will comply in all material respects with the requirements under the Securities Act, and did not, does not and will not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading. Neither the Prospectus nor any amendments or supplements thereto, as of their respective dates, and at each Applicable Time and Settlement Date, as the case may be, included or will include an untrue statement of a material fact or omitted or will omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

 

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The representations and warranties set forth in the immediately preceding paragraph shall not apply to statements in or omissions from the Original Registration Statement, or any post-effective amendment thereby or the Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, made in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent Information (as hereinafter defined).

Any preliminary prospectus (including the base prospectus filed as part of the Original Registration Statement or any amendment thereto) complied when so filed in all material respects with the Securities Act and any such preliminary prospectus and the Prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto delivered and to be delivered to each Sales Agent and Forward Purchaser (electronically or otherwise) in connection with the offering of the Placement Securities were and will be identical to the electronically transmitted copies thereof filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR, except to the extent permitted by Regulation S-T.

Each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (as defined below) relating to the Placement Securities, as of its issue date and as of the relevant Applicable Time and Settlement Date, or until any earlier date that the issuer notified or notifies each Sales Agent and Forward Purchaser as described in Section 7(d) hereof, did not, does not and will not (A) include any information that conflicted, conflicts or will conflict with the information contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, including any Incorporated Document deemed to be a part thereof that has not been superseded or modified, or (B) include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances prevailing at that subsequent time, not misleading. The foregoing sentence does not apply to statements in or omissions from any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus based upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by each Sales Agent and Forward Purchaser specifically for use therein. As used herein, “Issuer Free Writing Prospectus” means any “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433 under the Securities Act (“Rule 433”), relating to the Placement Securities that (i) is required to be filed with the Commission by the Company, (ii) is a “road show” that is a “written communication” within the meaning of Rule 433(d)(8)(i) whether or not required to be filed with the Commission, or (iii) is exempt from filing pursuant to Rule 433(d)(5)(i) because it contains a description of the Placement Securities or of the offering that does not reflect the final terms, and all free writing prospectuses that are listed on Exhibit F hereto, in each case in the form furnished (electronically or otherwise) to the Sales Agents and Forward Purchasers for use in connection with the offering of the Placement Securities.

At the effectiveness of the Original Registration Statement, at the time of the most recent amendment thereto for the purposes of complying with Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act (whether such amendment was by post-effective amendment, incorporated report filed pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act or form of prospectus), and at the time the Company or any person acting on its behalf (within the meaning, for this clause only, of Rule 163(c) under the Securities Act (“Rule 163(c)”)) made any offer relating to the Placement Securities in reliance on the exemption of Rule 163, the Company was a “well-known seasoned issuer,” as defined in Rule 405.

At the effectiveness of the Original Registration Statement, at the earliest time after the effectiveness of the Original Registration Statement that the Company or another offering participant made a bona fide offer (within the meaning of Rule 164(h)(2) under the

 

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Securities Act) of the Placement Securities and as of the execution of this Agreement (with such time of execution being used as the determination date for purposes of this clause), the Company was not and is not an “ineligible issuer,” as defined in Rule 405.

Each document incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus heretofore filed, when it was filed (or, if any amendment with respect to any such document was filed, when such amendment was filed), conformed in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act, and any further documents so filed and incorporated after the date of this Agreement will, when they are filed, conform in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act; no such document when it was filed (or, if an amendment with respect to any such document was filed, when such amendment was filed), contained an untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein not misleading; and no such document, when it is filed, will contain an untrue statement of a material fact or will omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

(2) Prior Written Communications. Any offer that is a written communication relating to the Placement Securities made prior to the initial filing of the Registration Statement by the Company or any person acting on its behalf (within the meaning, for this paragraph only, of Rule 163(c)) has been filed with the Commission in accordance with the exemption provided by Rule 163 under the Securities Act and otherwise complied with the requirements of Rule 163 of the Securities Act, including without limitation the legending requirement.

(3) Independent Accountants. Ernst & Young LLP, who certified the financial statements of the Company on a consolidated basis and Life Storage, LLC (“Life Storage”) incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, and whose reports appear in the Registration Statement or Prospectus or are incorporated by reference therein, is, and during the periods covered by such reports was, a registered independent public accountant as required by the Securities Act, the Exchange Act and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (“PCAOB”).

(4) Financial Statements. The financial statements of the Company included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, together with the related schedules (if any) and notes, present fairly in all material respects the consolidated financial position of the entities to which they relate at the dates indicated and the consolidated statements of operations, statements of comprehensive income and statements of cash flows of the Company and its Subsidiaries (as defined herein) for the periods specified, as applicable; and all such financial statements have been prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods involved and comply with all applicable accounting requirements under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, as applicable (except as may be indicated in the notes thereto), and have been prepared on a consistent basis with the books and records of the Company. The supporting schedules, if any, included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus present fairly in all material respects and in accordance with GAAP, the information required to be stated therein. The financial statements of the businesses or properties acquired or proposed to be

 

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acquired, if any, included in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus present fairly in all material respects the information set forth therein, have been prepared in conformity with GAAP applied on a consistent basis (except as may be indicated in the notes thereto) and otherwise have been prepared in accordance with, in the case of businesses acquired or to be acquired, the applicable financial statement requirements of Rule 3-05 in all material respects or, in the case of real estate operations acquired or to be acquired, Rule 3-14 of Regulation S-X in all material respects. The supporting schedules, if any, present fairly in all material respects and in accordance with GAAP the information required to be stated therein. The summary financial data and selected financial data included in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus present fairly in all material respects the information shown therein and have been compiled on a basis consistent with that of the audited financial statements of the Company included in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus. Any pro forma financial statements and the related notes and any pro forma and pro forma as adjusted financial information and related notes included in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus present fairly in all material respects the information shown therein, have been prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines with respect to pro forma financial statements and have been properly compiled on the bases described therein, and the assumptions used in the preparation thereof are reasonable and the adjustments used therein are appropriate to give effect to the transactions and circumstances referred to therein. Any information contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus regarding “non-GAAP financial measures” (as defined in Regulation G of the Commission) complies in all material respects with Regulation G and Item 10 of Regulation S-K of the Commission, to the extent applicable. No other financial statements or schedules are required by Form S-3 or otherwise to be included in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus.

The interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and has been prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto.

(5) Life Storage Financial Statements. (i) the financial statements of Life Storage, and the related notes thereto incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus comply in all material respects with the applicable requirements of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, as applicable, and present fairly the financial position of Life Storage and its subsidiaries as of the dates indicated and the results of their operations and the changes in their cash flows for the periods specified; (ii)such financial statements have been prepared in conformity with GAAP on a consistent basis throughout the periods covered thereby, and the supporting schedules included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus present fairly the information required to be stated therein; and (iii) the other financial information included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus has been derived from the accounting records of Life Storage and its subsidiaries and presents fairly the information shown thereby.

(6) No Material Adverse Change in Business. Since the respective dates as of which information is given in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, (i) there has not been any change in the capital stock (“Capital Stock”) or long-term debt of the

 

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Company, the Operating Partnership or any of the Subsidiaries, or any material adverse change, or any development involving a prospective material adverse change, in or affecting the business, properties, management, financial position, results of operations or prospects of the Company, the Operating Partnership and the Subsidiaries taken as a whole (a “Material Adverse Effect”); (ii) neither the Company, the Operating Partnership nor any of the Subsidiaries has entered into any transaction or agreement that is material to the Company, the Operating Partnership and the Subsidiaries, taken as a whole other than the issuance of Common Stock pursuant to the exercise or vesting of any Awards (as defined herein) outstanding on the date hereof and issued pursuant to the Equity Plans (as defined herein), there have been no changes in the authorized or outstanding Capital Stock of the Company, the Operating Partnership and the Subsidiaries, taken as a whole or incurred any liability or obligation, direct or contingent, that is material to the Company, the Operating Partnership and the Subsidiaries taken as a whole; (iii) except for regular quarterly or monthly dividends on the Common Stock, there has been no dividend or distribution of any kind declared, set aside for payment, paid or made by the Company or the Operating Partnership on any class of Common Stock, preferred stock or other Capital Stock; and (iv) neither the Company, the Operating Partnership, nor any of the Subsidiaries has sustained any material loss or interference with its business from fire, explosion, flood or other calamity, whether or not covered by insurance, or from any labor disturbance or dispute or any action, order or decree of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, except in each case as otherwise disclosed in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.

(7) Good Standing of the Company and the Operating Partnership. The Company has been duly incorporated and is validly existing as a corporation in good standing under the laws of the State of Maryland, with full corporate power and authority to own, lease and operate its properties and conduct its business as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and to execute and deliver this Agreement, any Confirmation and any Terms Agreement and to issue, sell and deliver the Placement Securities as contemplated herein. The Operating Partnership has been duly formed and is validly existing as a limited partnership in good standing under the laws of the State of Delaware, with full limited partnership power and authority to own, lease and operate its properties and conduct its business as described in the Registration Statement and Prospectus, and to execute and deliver this Agreement and any Terms Agreement and to perform its obligations as contemplated herein or therein, as applicable.

(8) Foreign Qualification of the Company and the Operating Partnership. The Company is duly qualified to do business as a foreign corporation and is in good standing in each jurisdiction where the ownership or leasing of its properties or the conduct of its business requires such qualification, except where the failure to be so qualified and in good standing would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect. The Operating Partnership is duly qualified to do business and is in good standing in each jurisdiction where the ownership or leasing of its properties or the conduct of its business requires such qualification, except where the failure to be so qualified and in good standing would not have a Material Adverse Effect.

(9) Units to be Issued. The units of partnership interest in the Operating Partnership (the “OP Units”) to be issued by the Operating Partnership to the Company in

 

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connection with the Company’s contribution of the proceeds from the sale of the Placement Securities to the Operating Partnership have been duly authorized for issuance by the Operating Partnership to the Company, and at each Settlement Date, will be validly issued and fully paid. Such OP Units will be exempt from registration or qualification under the Securities Act and applicable state securities laws. None of the OP Units will be issued in violation of the preemptive or other similar rights of any securityholder of the Operating Partnership.

(10) Tax Status of Operating Partnership. The Operating Partnership has not been and is not treated as a corporation, association taxable as a corporation or a publicly traded partnership for purposes of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”); and neither the Company nor the Operating Partnership knows of any event that would cause or is likely to cause the Operating Partnership to be treated as a corporation, association taxable as a corporation or a publicly traded partnership.

(11) Good Standing of Subsidiaries. The Company has provided complete and correct copies of the articles of incorporation and the bylaws (or comparable organizational documents) of the Company, the Operating Partnership, respectively, and their subsidiaries, inclusive of ESS Holdings Business Trust I, ESS Holdings Business Trust II, Life Storage LLC, Life Storage LP and Life Storage Holdings LLC (as defined under Rule 405 of the Exchange Act) (each, a “Subsidiary” and collectively, the “Subsidiaries”), and all amendments thereto have been delivered and, except as set forth in the Registration Statement or any Incorporated Document, no changes therein will be made on or after the date hereof through and including each Applicable Time; the Company, through two wholly-owned Subsidiaries, owned approximately 95.4% of the outstanding OP Units as of March 31, 2024; each of the “significant subsidiaries” of the Company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act (each, a “Significant Subsidiary” and collectively, the “Significant Subsidiaries”), has been duly organized and is validly existing as a corporation, limited liability company, limited partnership or trust, as applicable, in good standing under the laws of the jurisdiction of its organization, with full power and authority to own, lease and operate its properties and to conduct its business as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus; each Subsidiary is duly qualified to do business as a foreign corporation, limited liability company, limited partnership or trust, as applicable, and is in good standing in each jurisdiction where the ownership or leasing of its properties or the conduct of its business requires such qualification, except where the failure to be so qualified and in good standing would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect; each of the Company and the Operating Partnership has no “significant subsidiary,” other than as set forth in Annex A hereto; all of the outstanding shares of capital stock or other equity interests of each of the Subsidiaries have been duly authorized and validly issued, are fully paid and non-assessable, as applicable, and, with respect to such securities, are owned directly or indirectly by the Company or the Operating Partnership subject to no security interest, other encumbrance or adverse claims; and no options, warrants or other rights to purchase, agreements or other obligations to issue or other rights to convert any obligation into shares of capital stock or ownership interests in the Subsidiaries are outstanding.

(12) Capitalization. The issued and outstanding shares of Capital Stock of the Company have been duly authorized and validly issued, are fully paid and non-assessable

 

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and have been issued in compliance with applicable federal and state securities laws. None of the Company’s outstanding shares of Common Stock were issued in violation of any preemptive rights, resale rights, rights of first refusal or other similar rights and no further approval or authority of the Company’s stockholders or the Company’s Board of Directors is required for the issuance and sale of the Placement Securities; except as set forth in the Prospectus, the Company is not a party to or bound by any outstanding options, warrants or similar rights to subscribe for, or contractual obligations to issue, sell, transfer or acquire, any of its Capital Stock or any securities convertible into or exchangeable for any of such Capital Stock.

(13) Authorization of Agreement, Confirmations and Terms Agreements. This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and the Operating Partnership, and any Confirmations and Terms Agreement will have been at the time of the execution thereof, duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and the Operating Partnership, as applicable.

(14) Authorization of Securities. The Issuance Securities to be sold by the Company pursuant to this Agreement and any Terms Agreement have been duly and validly authorized and, when issued and delivered against payment of the consideration set forth herein, will be duly and validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable and free of statutory and contractual preemptive rights, resale rights, rights of first refusal or similar rights. Any shares of Common Stock to be delivered by the Company pursuant to any Confirmation (the “Confirmation Shares”) have been duly authorized for issuance and sale to the applicable Forward Purchaser or any of its affiliates pursuant to such Confirmation and, when issued and delivered by the Company in accordance with such Confirmation upon payment of any consideration required by such Confirmation, will be duly and validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable and free of statutory and contractual preemptive rights, resale rights, rights of first refusal or similar rights. The issuance, sale and/or delivery by the Company of Confirmation Shares to the applicable Forward Purchaser or any of its affiliates pursuant to the terms of any Confirmation in accordance with the terms thereof and the delivery by such Forward Purchaser or any of its affiliates of such Confirmation Shares to close out open borrowings of Common Stock created in the course of the hedging activities by such Forward Purchaser or any of its affiliates relating to such Forward Purchaser’s exposure under such Confirmation do not and will not require registration under the Securities Act.

(15) Description of Securities. The Capital Stock of the Company, including the Placement Securities, conforms in all material respects to the description thereof included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and the certificates for the Placement Securities are in due and proper form and the holders of the Placement Securities will not be subject to personal liability by reason of being such holders.

(16) Absence of Defaults and Conflicts. Neither the Company, the Operating Partnership nor any of the Subsidiaries is in breach or violation of or in default under (nor has any event occurred which with notice, lapse of time or both would result in any breach of, constitute a default under or give the holder of any indebtedness (or a person acting on such holder’s behalf) the right to require the repurchase, redemption or repayment of all or a part of such indebtedness under) (i) its respective charter, bylaws, limited liability

 

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company agreement, partnership agreement or other organizational document, (ii) any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, bank loan or credit agreement or other evidence of indebtedness, or any license, lease, contract or other agreement or instrument to which the Company, the Operating Partnership or any of the Subsidiaries is a party or by which any of them or any of their properties may be bound or affected, (iii) any federal, state, local or foreign law, regulation or rule, or (iv) any judgment or order applicable to the Company, the Operating Partnership or any of the Subsidiaries or any of their respective properties except, in the case of (ii), (iii) and (iv), as would not have a Material Adverse Effect, and the execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement, any Confirmation and any Terms Agreement, the issuance and sale of the Placement Securities and the consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby or thereby, as applicable, will not conflict with, result in any breach or violation of or constitute a default under (nor constitute any event which, with or without notice, lapse of time or both, would result in any breach of or constitute a default under) (A) the charter, bylaws, limited liability company agreement, partnership agreement or other organizational documents, as applicable, of the Company, the Operating Partnership or any of the Subsidiaries, (B) any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, bank loan or credit agreement or other evidence of indebtedness, or any license, lease, contract or other agreement or instrument to which the Company, the Operating Partnership or any of the Subsidiaries is a party or by which any of them or any of their respective properties may be bound or affected, (C) any federal, state, local or foreign law, regulation or rule, (D) any decree, judgment or order applicable to the Company, the Operating Partnership or any of the Subsidiaries or any of their respective properties, or (E) result in the creation or imposition of any lien, charge or encumbrance upon any property or assets of the Company, the Operating Partnership or any of the Subsidiaries, except, in case of (B), (C), (D) or (E), as would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.

(17) Absence of Labor Dispute. None of the Company, the Operating Partnership or any of the Subsidiaries is engaged in any unfair labor practice; except for matters which would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect, (A) there is (i) no unfair labor practice complaint pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, the Operating Partnership or any of the Subsidiaries, threatened against the Company, the Operating Partnership or any of the Subsidiaries before the National Labor Relations Board, and no grievance or arbitration proceeding arising out of or under collective bargaining agreements is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, the Operating Partnership or any of the Subsidiaries, threatened, (ii) no strike, labor dispute, slowdown or stoppage pending or, to the knowledge of either of the Company, the Operating Partnership or any of the Subsidiaries, threatened against the Company or any of the Subsidiaries and (iii) no union representation dispute currently existing concerning the employees of the Company, the Operating Partnership or any of the Subsidiaries, and (B) to the knowledge of the Company, the Operating Partnership or any of the Subsidiaries, (i) no union organizing activities are currently taking place concerning the employees of the Company, the Operating Partnership or any of the Subsidiaries and (ii) there has been no violation of any federal, state, local or foreign law relating to discrimination in the hiring, promotion or pay of employees, any applicable wage or hour laws or any provision of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (“ERISA”) or the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder concerning the employees of the Company, the Operating Partnership or any of the Subsidiaries.

 

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(18) Absence of Proceedings. There is no action, suit, claim, investigation or proceeding pending or threatened, or, to the knowledge of the Company, the Operating Partnership or any of the Subsidiaries, contemplated to which the Operating Partnership or any of the Subsidiaries or to which any of their respective directors or officers is a party or of which any of their respective properties is subject at law or in equity, before or by any federal, state, local or foreign governmental or regulatory commission, board, body, authority or agency, except any such action, suit, claim, investigation or proceeding which would not result in a judgment, decree or order having, individually or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect or preventing consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby or by any Confirmation or any Terms Agreement.

(19) Accuracy of Descriptions. The description of the Company’s and the Operating Partnership’s organization and current and proposed method of operation set forth in the Prospectus under the heading “U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences” is an accurate and fair summary of the matters referred to therein.

(20) Possession of Intellectual Property. Except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company, the Operating Partnership or a Subsidiary, as applicable, owns, or has obtained valid and enforceable licenses for, or other rights to use, the inventions, patent applications, patents, trademarks (both registered and unregistered), trade names, copyrights, trade secrets and other proprietary information described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as being owned or licensed by them or which are necessary for the conduct of their respective businesses as currently conducted, except where the failure to own, license or have such rights would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect (collectively, “Intellectual Property”); except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, (i) there are no third parties who have or, to the knowledge of the Company and the Operating Partnership, will be able to establish rights to any Intellectual Property, except for the ownership rights of the owners of the Intellectual Property which the Registration Statement and the Prospectus disclose is licensed to the Company or the Operating Partnership and for licenses for or other rights to use Intellectual Property which is licensed to the Company or the Operating Partnership on a non-exclusive basis; (ii) none of the Company, the Operating Partnership or any of the Subsidiaries has received written notice of any infringement by third parties of any Intellectual Property; (iii) there is no pending or, to the knowledge of the Company and the Operating Partnership, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by others challenging the Company’s and the Operating Partnership’s rights in or to any Intellectual Property, and the Company and the Operating Partnership are unaware of any facts which could form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim; (iv) there is no pending or, to the knowledge of the Company and the Operating Partnership, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by others challenging the validity or scope of any Intellectual Property, and the Company and the Operating Partnership are unaware of any facts which could form a reasonable basis for any such claim; (v) there is no pending or, to the knowledge of the Company and the Operating Partnership, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by others that the Company and the Operating Partnership or any Subsidiary infringes or otherwise violates any patent, trademark, copyright, trade secret or other proprietary rights of others, and the Company and the Operating Partnership are unaware of any facts which could form a reasonable basis for any such claim; (vi) there is no patent or patent application that contains claims that interfere with the issued or pending claims of any of

 

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the Intellectual Property owned by or licensed to the Company or the Operating Partnership; and (vii) none of the Company, the Operating Partnership or any of the Subsidiaries is aware of any prior art that may render any patent application owned by the Company, the Operating Partnership or any Subsidiary of the Intellectual Property unpatentable that has not been disclosed to the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

(21) Property. None of the Company, the Operating Partnership or any Subsidiary knows of any violation of any municipal, state or federal law, rule or regulation (including those pertaining to environmental matters) concerning any real property owned in fee simple or leased by the Company, the Operating Partnership or the Subsidiaries as of the date of this Agreement (collectively, for purposes of this subsection only, the “Properties”) or any part thereof which could have a Material Adverse Effect; all options and rights of first refusal to purchase all or part of any Property or any interest therein that are required to be described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus are disclosed therein; each of the Properties complies with all applicable zoning laws, ordinances, regulations and deed restrictions or other covenants in all material respects and, if and to the extent there is a failure to comply, such failure does not materially impair the value of any of the Properties and will not result in a forfeiture or reversion of title; none of the Company, the Operating Partnership or any Subsidiary has received from any governmental authority any written notice of any condemnation of or zoning change affecting the Properties or any part thereof, and none of the Company, the Operating Partnership or any Subsidiary knows of any such condemnation or zoning change which is threatened and which if consummated could have a Material Adverse Effect; all liens, charges, encumbrances, claims, or restrictions on or affecting the properties and assets (including the Properties) of any of the Subsidiaries that are required to be described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus are disclosed therein; no tenant of any of the Properties is in default under any of the leases pursuant to which any property is leased (and the Company and the Operating Partnership do not know of any event which, but for the passage of time or the giving of notice, or both, would constitute a default under any of such leases) other than such defaults that, individually or taken as a whole, would not have a Material Adverse Effect.

(22) Absence of Further Requirements. No approval, authorization, consent or order of, registration or qualification or filing with any federal, state, local or foreign governmental or regulatory commission, board, body, authority or agency is required for the execution, delivery and performance by the Company and the Operating Partnership, as applicable, of this Agreement, any Confirmation or any Terms Agreement in connection with the issuance and sale of the Placement Securities hereunder or thereunder, as applicable, or the consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby or thereby, as applicable, other than registration of the Placement Securities under the Securities Act, which has been or will be effected, and any such consents, approvals, authorization, orders and registration or qualifications as may be required under applicable securities or blue sky laws of the various jurisdictions in connection with the purchase and distribution of the Placement Securities to or through the Sales Agents or Forward Purchasers, or under the rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”).

(23) Possession of Licenses and Permits. Each of the Company, the Operating Partnership and the Subsidiaries has all necessary licenses, authorizations, consents and

 

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approvals and has made all necessary filings required under any federal, state, local or foreign law, regulation or rule, and has obtained all necessary licenses, authorizations, consents and approvals from other persons, in order to conduct their respective businesses as presently conducted, except as would not have a Material Adverse Effect; neither the Company, the Operating Partnership nor any of the Subsidiaries is in violation of, or in default under, or has received notice of any proceedings relating to revocation or modification of, any such license, authorization, consent or approval or any federal, state, local or foreign law, regulation or rule or any decree, order or judgment applicable to the Company, the Operating Partnership or any of the Subsidiaries, except where such violation, default, revocation or modification would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.

(24) Title to Property. Except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company, the Operating Partnership and each of the Subsidiaries has good and marketable title to all property (real and personal) described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as being owned by each of them, free and clear of all liens, claims, security interests or other encumbrances; except as described in the Prospectus, all the property described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as being held under lease by the Company, the Operating Partnership or a Subsidiary is held thereby under valid, subsisting and enforceable leases, except where the failure to do so would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.

(25) Investment Company Act. Neither the Company, the Operating Partnership nor any Subsidiary is, and upon consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement as herein contemplated and the application of the net proceeds therefrom as described in the Prospectus under the caption “Use of Proceeds,” will not be, an “investment company” or an entity “controlled” by an “investment company,” as such terms are defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”).

(26) Environmental Laws. (A) the Company, the Operating Partnership and the Subsidiaries and their respective properties, assets and operations are in compliance with, and the Company, the Operating Partnership and the Subsidiaries hold all permits, authorizations and approvals required under, Environmental Laws (as defined below), except to the extent that failure to so comply or to hold such permits, authorizations or approvals would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect; (B) there are no past, present or, to the knowledge of either of the Company and the Operating Partnership, reasonably anticipated future events, conditions, circumstances, activities, practices, actions, omissions or plans that could reasonably be expected to give rise to any material costs or liabilities to the Company, the Operating Partnership or any Subsidiary under, or to interfere with or prevent compliance by the Company, the Operating Partnership or the Subsidiaries with, Environmental Laws; (C) except as would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect, none of the Company, the Operating Partnership or any of the Subsidiaries (i) is the subject of any investigation, (ii) has received any notice or claim, (iii) is a party to or affected by any pending or threatened action, suit or proceeding, (iv) is bound by any judgment, decree or order or (v) has entered into any agreement, in each case relating to any alleged violation of any Environmental Law or any actual or alleged liability or release or threatened release or

 

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cleanup at any location of any Hazardous Materials (as defined below). As used herein, “Environmental Law” means any federal, state, local or foreign law, statute, ordinance, rule, regulation, order, decree, judgment, injunction, permit, license, authorization or other binding requirement, or common law, relating to health, safety or the protection, cleanup or restoration of the environment or natural resources, including those relating to the distribution, processing, generation, treatment, storage, disposal, transportation, other handling or release or threatened release of Hazardous Materials, and “Hazardous Materials” means any material (including, without limitation, pollutants, contaminants, hazardous or toxic substances or wastes) that is regulated by or may give rise to liability under any Environmental Law.

(27) Absence of Registration Rights. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, (i) no person has the right, contractual or otherwise, to cause the Company or the Operating Partnership to issue or sell to it any shares of Common Stock or shares of any other Capital Stock or other equity interests of the Operating Partnership or the Company, (ii) no person has any preemptive rights, resale rights, rights of first refusal or other rights to purchase any shares of Common Stock or shares of any other capital stock or other equity interests in the Operating Partnership or the Company, and (iii) no person has the right to act as an underwriter or as a financial advisor to the Operating Partnership or the Company in connection with the offer and sale of the Placement Securities, in the case of each of the foregoing clauses (i), (ii) and (iii), whether as a result of the filing or effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the sale of the Placement Securities as contemplated thereby. There are no persons with registration rights or other similar rights to have any securities registered for sale pursuant to the Registration Statement or otherwise registered for sale or sold pursuant to this Agreement by the Company under the Securities Act.

(28) Taxes. All material tax returns required to be filed by the Company and the Operating Partnership and each of the Subsidiaries have been filed, and all material taxes and other material assessments of a similar nature (whether imposed directly or through withholding) including any interest, additions to tax or penalties applicable thereto due or claimed to be due from such entities have been paid, other than those being contested in good faith and for which adequate reserves have been provided; the Company, the Operating Partnership and each of the Subsidiaries have no knowledge of any outstanding material tax deficiency that has been asserted or threatened against the Company, the Operating Partnership or any Subsidiary or of any current material audit of any tax return of the Company, the Operating Partnership or a Subsidiary by a federal, state or local taxing authority or agency.

(29) Insurance. The Company, the Operating Partnership and each of the Subsidiaries maintains insurance covering its properties, operations, personnel and businesses as the Company deems adequate; such insurance insures against such losses and risks to an extent which is adequate in accordance with customary industry practice to protect the Company, the Operating Partnership and the Subsidiaries and their businesses; such insurance as the Company deems adequate and that insures against losses and risks to an extent which is adequate in accordance with customary industry practice is fully in force on the date hereof and will be fully in force at the time of purchase and any additional time of purchase.

 

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(30) Disclosure Controls and Procedures. Each of the Company, the Operating Partnership and the Subsidiaries maintain and have maintained effective internal control over financial reporting as defined in Rule 13a-15 under the Exchange Act and a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that (A) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations, (B) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP and to maintain asset accountability, (C) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization, (D) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences and (E) interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and is prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto. With respect to stock options or other equity incentive grants (collectively, “Awards”) granted subsequent to August 17, 2004 pursuant to the equity-based compensation plans of the Company (the “Equity Plans”), (i) all stock options have been granted with a per-share exercise price that is either (x) at least equal to the fair market value of a share of Common Stock as of the date of such grant, or (y) at least equal to the five-day average closing stock price of a share of Common Stock prior to the date of such grant, (ii) each such grant was made in compliance in all material respects with the Equity Plans, the Exchange Act and all other applicable laws and regulatory rules or requirements, and (iii) each such grant has been properly accounted for in all material respects in accordance with GAAP in the financial statements (including the related notes) of the Company and disclosed in the Company’s filings with the Commission.

(31) Internal Accounting Controls. The Company has established and maintains (i) effective internal control over financial reporting as defined in Rule 13a-15 under the Exchange Act, (ii) disclosure controls and procedures sufficient to enable its management to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms, and material information relating to the Company, including its consolidated Subsidiaries, is made known to the Company’s Chief Executive Officer and its Chief Financial Officer by others within those entities, and such disclosure controls and procedures are effective to perform the functions for which they were established. The Company’s registered public accounting firm and the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors of the Company have been advised of: (A) any significant deficiencies in the design or operation of internal controls which could adversely affect the Company’s ability to record, process, summarize, and report financial data; and (B) any fraud, whether or not material, that involves management or other employees who have a role in the Company’s internal controls. Any material weaknesses in internal controls have been identified for the Company’s registered public accounting firm. Since the date of the most recent evaluation of such internal control over financial reporting, (i) there have been no significant changes in internal controls or in other factors that could significantly adversely affect internal controls and (ii) no control deficiencies have arisen that would constitute either “significant deficiencies” or a “material weaknesses.”

 

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(32) Compliance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Company and any officers and directors of the Company, in their capacities as such, are in compliance in all material respects with the applicable provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder or implementing the provisions thereof.

(33) Permitted Free Writing Prospectus. The Company has not distributed and will not distribute any offering material in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Securities to be sold hereunder by each Sales Agent as principal or agent for the Company or by the Forward Purchasers and their affiliated Sales Agents as forward sellers, other than the Prospectus and any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus reviewed and consented to by the Sales Agents and Forward Purchasers.

(34) Actively Traded Security. The Common Stock qualifies as an “actively traded security” excepted from the requirements of Rule 101 of Regulation M under the Exchange Act by subsection (c)(1) of such rule.

(35) Absence of Manipulation. Other than excepted activity pursuant to Regulation M under the Exchange Act, none of the Company, the Operating Partnership or any of the Subsidiaries, nor any of their respective directors, officers, affiliates or controlling persons, has taken or will take, directly or indirectly, any action designed to or that would constitute or that would reasonably be expected to cause or result in the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security to facilitate the sale or resale of the Placement Securities.

(36) Statistical or Market-Related Data. Any statistical and market-related data included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus are based on or derived from sources that the Company and the Operating Partnership believe to be reliable and accurate, and the Company has obtained the written consent to the use of such data from such sources to the extent necessary or as required.

(37) Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. None of the Company, the Operating Partnership or any of the Subsidiaries, nor, to the knowledge of the Company and the Operating Partnership, any director, officer, agent, employee or affiliate of the Company, the Operating Partnership or the Subsidiaries is aware of or has taken any action, directly or indirectly, that would result in a violation by such persons of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (the “FCPA”) or any other applicable law or regulation implementing the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, or committed an offense under the Bribery Act of 2010 of the United Kingdom, or any other applicable anti-corruption or anti-bribery laws, including, without limitation, making use of the mails or any means or instrumentality of interstate commerce corruptly in furtherance of an offer, payment, promise to pay or authorization of the payment of any money, or other property, gift, promise to give, or authorization of the giving of anything of value to any “foreign official” (as such term is defined in the FCPA) or any foreign political party or official thereof or any candidate for foreign political office, in

 

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contravention of the FCPA; and the Company, the Operating Partnership and the Subsidiaries, and, to the knowledge of the Company and the Operating Partnership, their affiliates, have conducted their businesses in compliance with the FCPA and have instituted and maintain policies and procedures designed to ensure, and which are reasonably expected to continue to ensure, continued compliance therewith.

(38) Money Laundering Laws. The operations of the Company, the Operating Partnership and the Subsidiaries are and have been conducted since August 17, 2004 in compliance with applicable financial recordkeeping and reporting requirements and money laundering statutes and the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by any governmental agency (collectively, the “Money Laundering Laws”) and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company, the Operating Partnership or the Subsidiaries with respect to the Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company and the Operating Partnership, threatened.

(39) OFAC. None of the Company, the Operating Partnership, the Subsidiaries or, to the knowledge of the Company and the Operating Partnership, any director, officer, agent, employee or affiliate of the Company or the Operating Partnership or the Subsidiaries is (i) currently the subject or the target of any sanctions administered or enforced by the U.S. Government, including, without limitation, the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Department of the Treasury (including, without limitation, the Ukraine-/Russia-related/Sectoral Sanctions Identification List sanctions program), the United Nations Security Council, the European Union, His Majesty’s Treasury, or other relevant sanctions authority (collectively, “Sanctions”) or (ii) owned 50% or more by or otherwise controlled by or acting on behalf of one or more persons or entities that are subject to Sanctions, nor are the Company, the Operating Partnership, the Subsidiaries located, organized or resident in a country or territory that is the subject of Sanctions (including but not limited to Cuba, Iran, Syria, North Korea, the Crimea Region of Ukraine, the so-called Donetsk People’s Republic, the so-called Luhansk People’s Republic); and the Company, the Operating Partnership, the Subsidiaries, and the Company and the Operating Partnership will not directly or indirectly use the proceeds of the offering of the Issuance Securities hereunder or the proceeds of the settlement of any Confirmation, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any subsidiary, joint venture partner or other person or entity (i) for the purpose of funding or facilitating any activities of or business with any person, or in any country or territory, that, at the time of such use, is the subject of Sanctions or (ii) in any other manner that would reasonably be expected, by the Company or the Operating Partnership, to result in a violation by any person participating in the transaction, whether as agent, underwriter, advisor, investor or otherwise, of Sanctions.

(40) Lending Relationship. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company does not intend to use any of the proceeds from the sale of the Placement Securities to repay any debt owed to the Sales Agents, Forward Purchasers or any affiliate thereof.

(41) ERISA. The Company and the Operating Partnership are in compliance in all material respects with all presently applicable provisions of ERISA; no “reportable

 

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event” (as defined in ERISA) has occurred with respect to any “pension plan” (as defined in ERISA) for which the Company or the Operating Partnership would have any liability; the Company and the Operating Partnership have not incurred and do not expect to incur liability under (i) Title IV of ERISA with respect to termination of, or withdrawal from, any “pension plan” or (ii) Sections 412 or 4971 of the Code including the regulations and published interpretations thereunder; and each “pension plan” for which the Company and the Operating Partnership would have any liability that is intended to be qualified under Section 401(a) of the Code is so qualified in all material respects and nothing has occurred, whether by action or by failure to act, which would cause the loss of such qualification, except for any such noncompliance, reportable event, liability, or failure to qualify that would not result in a Material Adverse Effect.

The assets of the Company and the Operating Partnership do not constitute “plan assets” of an ERISA regulated employee benefit plan.

(42) No Finder’s Fee. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there are no contracts, agreements or understandings between the Company and the Operating Partnership and any person that would give rise to a valid claim against the Company, the Operating Partnership, the Sales Agents or the Forward Purchasers for a brokerage commission, finder’s fee or other like payment with respect to the consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement.

(43) Proprietary Trading by the Sales Agents. The Company acknowledges and agrees that each Sales Agent and Forward Purchaser has informed the Company that such Sales Agent or Forward Purchaser may, to the extent permitted under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, purchase and sell shares of Common Stock for its own account while this Agreement is in effect, and shall be under no obligation to purchase Issuance Securities on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement, except as otherwise agreed by such Sales Agent in a separate written agreement containing the terms and conditions of such sale.

(44) REIT Status. The Company has been organized and has operated in conformity with the requirements for qualification as a real estate investment trust (“REIT”) pursuant to Sections 856 through 860 of the Code, and has been subject to taxation as a REIT, for all taxable years beginning with its taxable year ended December 31, 2004, and the method of operation of the Company, the Operating Partnership and the Subsidiaries (as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus) will enable the Company to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code for the taxable year ending December 31, 2024 and thereafter.

(45) All Legal Proceedings Filed. All legal or governmental proceedings, affiliate transactions, off-balance sheet transactions, contracts, licenses, agreements, leases or documents of a character required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or to be filed as an exhibit to the Registration Statement have been so described or filed as required.

(46) Periodic Reviews of Environmental Laws. In the ordinary course of their business, the Company, the Operating Partnership and the Subsidiaries conduct periodic

 

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reviews of the effect of Environmental Laws on their business, operations and properties, in the course of which they identify and evaluate associated costs and liabilities (including, without limitation, any capital or operating expenditures required for cleanup, closure of properties or compliance with Environmental Laws or any permit, license or approval, any related constraints on operating activities and any potential liabilities to third parties).

(47) Fire, Explosion, Flood or Calamity. None of the Company, the Operating Partnership or any of the Subsidiaries has sustained since the date of the last audited financial statements included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus any loss or interference with its respective business from fire, explosion, flood or other calamity, whether or not covered by insurance, or from any labor dispute or court or government action, order or decree, except as would not have a Material Adverse Effect or disclosed in the Prospectus.

(48) No Termination of Contracts. None of the Company, the Operating Partnership or any Subsidiary has sent or received any communication regarding termination of, or intent not to renew, any of the contracts or agreements referred to or described in the Prospectus, or referred to or described in, or filed as an exhibit to, the Registration Statement or any Incorporated Document, and no such termination or non-renewal has been threatened by the Company, the Operating Partnership or any Subsidiary or, to the knowledge of any such entity, any other party to any such contract or agreement.

(49) Personal Loans. The Company has provided you with true, correct, and complete copies of all documentation pertaining to any extension of credit in the form of a personal loan made, directly or indirectly, by the Company or the Operating Partnership to any director or executive officer of the Company or the Operating Partnership, or to any family member or affiliate of any director or executive officer of the Company or the Operating Partnership; and since July 30, 2002, the Company and the Operating Partnership have not, directly or indirectly, including through any Subsidiary: (A) extended credit, arranged to extend credit, or renewed any extension of credit, in the form of a personal loan, to or for any director or executive officer of the Company or the Operating Partnership, or to or for any family member or affiliate of any director or executive officer of the Company or the Operating Partnership; or (B) since July 30, 2002, made any material modification, including any renewal thereof, to any term of any personal loan to any director or executive officer of the Company or the Operating Partnership, or any family member or affiliate of any director or executive officer, which loan was outstanding on July 30, 2002.

(50) No Payment of Funds Violating Law. None of the Company, the Operating Partnership or any of the Subsidiaries nor, to the knowledge of either of the Company or the Operating Partnership, any employee or agent of the Company, the Operating Partnership or any Subsidiary has made any payment of funds of the Company, the Operating Partnership or any Subsidiary or received or retained any funds in violation of any law, rule or regulation, which payment, receipt or retention of funds is of a character required to be disclosed in the Prospectus.

(51) No FINRA Affiliations. To the knowledge of either of the Company or the Operating Partnership, there are no affiliations or associations between any member of FINRA and any of the Company’s officers, directors or 5% or greater securityholders, except as set forth in the Prospectus.

 

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(52) No Reliance for Advice on Securities. The Company and the Operating Partnership have not relied upon the Sales Agents, Forward Purchasers or legal counsel for the Sales Agents or Forward Purchasers for any legal, tax or accounting advice in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Securities, other than with respect to applicable requirements of state securities or “blue sky” laws or similar laws of foreign jurisdictions.

(53) Securities Issued in Compliance with Laws. All securities issued by the Company, the Operating Partnership or any of the Subsidiaries have been issued and sold in compliance with all applicable federal and state securities laws.

(54) No Cross-Defaulted or Cross-Collateralized Mortgages. The mortgages and deeds of trust encumbering the properties and assets described in general in the Prospectus are not convertible and are not cross-defaulted or cross-collateralized to any property not owned by the Company, the Operating Partnership or any Subsidiaries, except as disclosed in the Prospectus; and none of the Company, the Operating Partnership or any Subsidiaries hold participating interests in such mortgages and deeds of trust.

(55) Cybersecurity. Except as would not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect, the Company, the Operating Partnership and the Subsidiaries’ information technology assets and equipment, computers, systems, networks, hardware, software, websites, applications, and databases (collectively, “IT Systems”) are adequate for, and operate and perform in all material respects as required in connection with the operation of the business of the Company, the Operating Partnership and the Subsidiaries as currently conducted, free and clear of all material bugs, errors, defects, Trojan horses, time bombs, malware and other corruptants. The Company and its Subsidiaries have implemented and maintained commercially reasonable controls, policies, procedures, and safeguards to maintain and protect their material confidential information and the integrity, continuous operation, redundancy and security of all IT Systems and data (including all personal, personally identifiable, sensitive, confidential or regulated data (“Personal Data”)) used in connection with their businesses, and there have been no breaches, violations, outages or unauthorized uses of or accesses to same, except for those that have been remedied without material cost or liability or the duty to notify any other person, nor any incidents under internal review or investigations relating to the same. The Company, the Operating Partnership and the Subsidiaries are presently in material compliance with all applicable laws or statutes and all judgments, orders, rules and regulations of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, internal policies and contractual obligations relating to the privacy and security of IT Systems and Personal Data and to the protection of such IT Systems and Personal Data from unauthorized use, access, misappropriation or modification.

(b) Certificates. Any certificate signed by any officer of the Company or the Operating Partnership and delivered to each Sales Agent, Forward Purchaser or to counsel for the Sales Agents or Forward Purchasers in connection with the offering of Placement Securities as contemplated by this Agreement, any Confirmation or any Terms Agreement shall be deemed a representation and warranty by the Company and the Operating Partnership, as the case may be, to the Sales Agents and/or Forward Purchaser, as applicable, as to the matters covered thereby.

 

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SECTION 6. Sale and Delivery of Securities; Settlement.

(a) Sale of Issuance Securities. On the basis of the representations and warranties herein contained and subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, upon the Current Sales Agent’s acceptance of the terms of a Placement Notice or upon receipt by the Current Sales Agent of an Issuance Acceptance, as the case may be, and unless the sale of the Issuance Securities described therein has been declined, suspended, or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, the Current Sales Agent, for the period specified in the Issuance Placement Notice (as amended by the corresponding Issuance Acceptance, if applicable), will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell such Issuance Securities up to the amount specified, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of such Placement Notice (as amended by the corresponding Issuance Acceptance, if applicable). The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) there can be no assurance that the Current Sales Agent will be successful in selling Issuance Securities, (ii) the Current Sales Agent will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Issuance Securities for any reason other than a failure by the Current Sales Agent to use their commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell such Issuance Securities as required under this Section 6 and (iii) the Current Sales Agent shall be under no obligation to purchase Securities on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement, except as otherwise agreed by the Current Sales Agent in a Terms Agreement containing the terms and conditions of such sale.

(b) Sale of Forward Hedge Securities. Each of the Company, the Forward Purchasers and their affiliated Sales Agents as forward sellers acknowledge and agree that: (i) there can be no assurance that the Forward Purchasers or their affiliates will be successful in borrowing or selling Forward Hedge Securities; (ii) the Sales Agents in their capacity as forward sellers will incur no liability or obligation to the Company, the Forward Purchasers or any other person or entity if they do not sell Forward Hedge Shares borrowed by the Forward Purchasers or their affiliates for any reason other than a failure by such Sales Agent acting in its capacity as forward seller to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell such Forward Hedge Shares as required elsewhere herein; and (iii) the Forward Purchasers will incur no liability or obligation to the Company, any Sales Agents acting as forward sellers or any other person or entity if they or their affiliates do not borrow Forward Hedge Shares for any reason other than a failure by such Forward Purchaser to use its commercially reasonable efforts to borrow or cause its affiliate to borrow such Forward Hedge Shares as required elsewhere herein. Notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, a Forward Purchaser’s obligation to use commercially reasonable efforts to borrow or cause its affiliate to borrow all or any portion of the Forward Hedge Shares (and, in its capacity as forward seller, a Sales Agent’s obligation to use commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell such portion of the Forward Hedge Shares) for any Forward Transaction hereunder shall be subject in all respects to the provision “Conditions to Effectiveness” in the relevant Confirmation. In acting hereunder, a Sales Agent when acting as forward seller will be acting as agent for its affiliated Forward Purchaser and not as principal.

 

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(c) Settlement of Placement Securities. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable Placement Notice (as amended by the corresponding Acceptance, if applicable) and relevant Confirmation, if applicable, settlement for sales of Placement Securities the sale of which occurs (a) on or prior to May 24, 2024 will occur on the second (2nd) Trading Day and (b) on or after May 28, 2024 will occur on the first (1st) Trading Day (or such day as is industry practice for regular-way trading), in each case, following the date on which such sales are made (each, a “Settlement Date”). The amount of net proceeds to be delivered to the Company on a Settlement Date against receipt of the Placement Securities sold will be equal to the aggregate sales price received by the Current Sales Agent at which such Placement Securities were sold, after deduction for (i) the Current Sales Agent’s commission, discount or other compensation for such sales payable by the Company pursuant to Section 2 hereof, (ii) any other amounts due and payable by the Company to the Current Sales Agent hereunder pursuant to Section 8(a) hereof, and (iii) any transaction fees imposed by any governmental or self-regulatory organization in respect of such sales. The amount of proceeds to be delivered to a Forward Purchaser by its affiliated Sales Agent as forward seller on a Settlement Date against receipt of the Forward Hedge Shares sold will be equal to the related aggregate Forward Price.

(d) Delivery of Placement Securities. (i) On or before each Settlement Date for any Issuance Placement, the Company will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer the Issuance Securities being sold by crediting the Current Sales Agent’s or its designee’s account (provided the Current Sales Agent shall have given the Company written notice of such designee prior to the Settlement Date) at The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) through its Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian System (“DWAC”) or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto which in all cases shall be freely tradable, transferable, registered shares in good deliverable form. On each Settlement Date, the Current Sales Agent will deliver the related net proceeds in same day funds to an account designated by the Company on, or prior to, the Settlement Date. The Company agrees that if the Company, or its transfer agent (if applicable), defaults in its obligation to deliver Issuance Securities on a Settlement Date in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, the Company agrees that in addition to and in no way limiting the rights and obligations set forth in Section 10(a) and Section 10(d) hereof, it will (i) hold the Current Sales Agent harmless against any loss, liability, claim, damage, or expense whatsoever (including reasonable legal fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company or its transfer agent and (ii) pay to the Current Sales Agent any commission, discount, or other compensation to which it would otherwise have been entitled absent such default.

(ii) Each sale of Forward Hedge Securities will be settled as between the applicable Forward Purchaser and its affiliated Sales Agent as forward seller on each Settlement Date therefor. On or before each such Settlement Date, such Forward Purchaser will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer the Forward Hedge Shares being sold by crediting the related forward seller or its designee’s account at DTC through DWAC or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by such Forward Purchaser and its affiliated Sales Agent, which in all cases shall be freely

 

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tradeable, transferable, registered shares in good deliverable form. On each such Settlement Date, such Sales Agent in its capacity as forward seller will deliver the aggregate Forward Price (as defined in the Confirmation) to the related Forward Purchaser in same day funds delivered to an account designated by such Forward Purchaser prior to the relevant Settlement Date.

(e) Denominations; Registration. Certificates for the Placement Securities shall be in such denominations and registered in such names as the Current Sales Agent may request in writing at least one full Business Day before the Settlement Date. The Company shall deliver the Issuance Securities, if any, through the facilities of DTC unless the Current Sales Agent shall otherwise instruct.

(f) Limitations on Offering Size. Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Placement Securities, if after giving effect to the sale of such Placement Securities, the aggregate offering price of the Placement Securities sold pursuant to this Agreement and any Terms Agreement would exceed the lesser of (i) together with all sales of Placement Securities under this Agreement and any Terms Agreement, the Maximum Amount, (ii) the amount available for offer and sale under the currently effective Registration Statement and (iii) the amount authorized from time to time to be issued and sold under this Agreement and any Terms Agreement by the Company and notified to the Sales Agents and Forward Purchasers in writing. Under no circumstances shall the offer or sale of any Placement Securities pursuant to this Agreement or any Terms Agreement be made at a price lower than the minimum price authorized from time to time by the Company and notified to the Sales Agents or Forward Purchaser, as applicable, in writing. Further, under no circumstances shall the aggregate offering price of Placement Securities sold pursuant to this Agreement and any Terms Agreement, including any separate underwriting or similar agreement covering principal transactions described in Section 1 of this Agreement, exceed the Maximum Amount.

(g) Black-out Limitations. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, any Confirmation or any Terms Agreement, the Company, the Sales Agents and Forward Purchasers agree that no sales of Placement Securities shall take place, and the Company shall not request the sale of any Placement Securities that would be sold, and the Sales Agents and Forward Purchasers shall not be obligated to sell, (i) during any period in which the Company is, or would reasonably be deemed to be, in possession of material non-public information or (ii) except as provided in Section 6(g)(1) hereof, at any time during the period commencing on the tenth (10th) business day prior to the time the Company issues a press release containing, or shall otherwise publicly announce, its earnings, revenues or other operating results for a fiscal period or periods (each, an “Earnings Announcement”) through and including the time that is 24 hours after the time that the Company files a Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or an Annual Report on Form 10-K (a “Filing Time”) that includes consolidated financial statements as of and for the same fiscal period or periods, as the case may be, covered by such Earnings Announcement.

(1) If the Company wishes to offer or sell Issuance Securities to or through a Sales Agent as agent or instruct a Sales Agent to sell Forward Hedge Securities as agent for the applicable Forward Purchaser at any time during the period from and including an Earnings Announcement through and including the time that is 24 hours after the corresponding Filing Time, the Company shall first

 

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(i) prepare and deliver to the Sales Agent (with a copy to counsel to the Sales Agent) a Current Report on Form 8-K that includes substantially the same financial and related information that was included in such Earnings Announcement (other than any earnings projections and similar forward-looking data and officers’ quotations) (each, an “Earnings 8-K”), in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Sales Agent, and prior to its filing, obtain written consent of the Sales Agent to such filing (which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld), (ii) provide the Sales Agent with the officers’ certificate, opinions and letters of counsel and accountants’ letters specified in Section 7(o), (p) and (q), respectively, hereof, (iii) afford the Sales Agent the opportunity to conduct a due diligence review in accordance with Section 7(m) hereof prior to filing such Earnings 8-K and (iv) file such Earnings 8-K with the Commission, then the provisions of clause (ii) of Section 6(g) shall not be applicable for the period from and after the time at which the foregoing conditions shall have been satisfied (or, if later, the time that is 24 hours after the time that the relevant Earnings Announcement was first publicly released) through and including the time that is 24 hours after the Filing Time of the relevant Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or Annual Report on Form 10-K, as the case may be. For purposes of clarity, the parties hereto agree that (A) the delivery of any officers’ certificate, opinion or letter of counsel or accountants’ letters pursuant to this Section 6(g) hereof shall not relieve the Company from any of its obligations under this Agreement with respect to any Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or Annual Report on Form 10-K, as the case may be, including, without limitation, the obligation to deliver officers’ certificates, opinions and letters of counsel and accountants’ letters as provided in Section 7(o), (p) and (q), respectively, hereof, and (B) this Section 6(g)(1) shall in no way affect or limit the operation of clause (i) of Section 6(g) hereof, which shall have independent application.

SECTION 7. Covenants of the Company. The Company covenants with the Sales Agents and Forward Purchasers as follows:

(a) Registration Statement Amendments; Payment of Fees. After the date of this Agreement and during any period in which a Prospectus relating to any Placement Securities is required to be delivered by the Sales Agents or Forward Purchasers under the Securities Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act (“Rule 172”)), (i) the Company will notify the Sales Agents and Forward Purchasers promptly of the time when any subsequent amendment to the Registration Statement, other than documents incorporated by reference, has been filed with the Commission and/or has become effective or any subsequent supplement to the Prospectus has been filed and of any comment letter from the Commission or any request by the Commission for any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus or for additional information; provided, however, if any such supplement to the Prospectus does not relate to the Placement Securities and no Placement Notice is pending, the Company may satisfy this Section 7(a)(i) by notifying the Sales Agents and Forward Purchasers of such supplement to the Prospectus no later than the close of business on the date of first use of such supplement; (ii) the Company will prepare and file with the Commission, promptly upon a Current Sales Agent’s or Forward Purchaser’s request, any amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or

 

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Prospectus that, in such Sales Agent’s or Forward Purchaser’s reasonable opinion, may be necessary or advisable in connection with the distribution of the Placement Securities (provided, however, that the failure of such Sales Agent or Forward Purchaser to make such request shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect such Sales Agent’s or Forward Purchaser’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement or such Forward Purchaser’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in any Confirmation); (iii) the Company will not file any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus, other than documents incorporated by reference, relating to the Placement Securities or a security convertible into the Placement Securities unless a copy thereof has been submitted to the Sales Agents and Forward Purchasers within a reasonable period of time before the filing and the Sales Agents and Forward Purchasers have not reasonably objected thereto (provided, however, that the failure of the Sales Agents or Forward Purchasers to make such objection shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Sales Agents’ or Forward Purchasers’ right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement or such Forward Purchaser’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in any Confirmation) and the Company will furnish to the Sales Agents and Forward Purchasers at the time of filing thereof a copy of any document that upon filing is deemed to be incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement or Prospectus, except for those documents available via EDGAR; and (iv) the Company will cause each amendment or supplement to the Prospectus, other than documents incorporated by reference, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act (without reliance on Rule 424(b)(8) under the Securities Act).

(b) Notice of Commission Stop Orders. The Company will advise the Sales Agents and Forward Purchasers, promptly after it receives notice or obtains knowledge thereof, of the issuance or threatened issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or of any other order preventing or suspending the use of the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, or of the suspension of the qualification of the Placement Securities for offering or sale in any jurisdiction or of the loss or suspension of any exemption from any such qualification, or of the initiation or threatening of any proceedings for any of such purposes, or of any examination pursuant to Section 8(e) of the Securities Act concerning the Registration Statement or if the Company becomes the subject of a proceeding under Section 8A of the Securities Act in connection with the offering of the Placement Securities. The Company will make every reasonable effort to prevent the issuance of any stop order, the suspension of any qualification of the Placement Securities for offering or sale and any loss or suspension of any exemption from any such qualification, and if any such stop order is issued or any such suspension or loss occurs, to obtain the lifting thereof as soon as reasonably practicable.

(c) Delivery of Registration Statement and Prospectus. The Company will furnish to the Sales Agents, Forward Purchasers and their respective counsels (at the expense of the Company) copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus (including all documents incorporated by reference therein) and all amendments and supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus, and any Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses, that

 

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are filed with the Commission during any period in which a Prospectus relating to the Placement Securities is required to be delivered under the Securities Act (including all documents filed with the Commission during such period that are deemed to be incorporated by reference therein), in each case as soon as reasonably practicable and in such quantities and at such locations as the Sales Agents and Forward Purchasers may from time to time reasonably request; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to furnish any document (other than the Prospectus) to the Sales Agents or Forward purchasers to the extent such document is available on EDGAR. The copies of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and any supplements or amendments thereto furnished to the Sales Agents and Forward Purchasers will be identical to the electronically transmitted copies thereof filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR, except to the extent permitted by Regulation S-T.

(d) Continued Compliance with Securities Laws. If at any time when a Prospectus is required by the Securities Act or the Exchange Act to be delivered in connection with a pending sale of the Placement Securities (including, without limitation, pursuant to Rule 172), any event shall occur or condition shall exist as a result of which it is necessary, in the opinion of counsel for the Sales Agents or Forward Purchasers or for the Company, to amend the Registration Statement or amend or supplement the Prospectus in order that the Prospectus will not include any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein not misleading in the light of the circumstances existing at the time it is delivered to a purchaser, or if it shall be necessary, in the opinion of such counsel, at any such time to amend the Registration Statement or amend or supplement the Prospectus in order to comply with the requirements of the Securities Act, the Company will promptly notify the Sales Agents and Forward Purchasers to suspend the offering of Placement Securities during such period and the Company will promptly prepare and file with the Commission such amendment or supplement as may be necessary to correct such statement or omission or to make the Registration Statement or the Prospectus comply with such requirements, and the Company will furnish to the Sales Agents and Forward Purchasers such number of copies of such amendment or supplement as the Sales Agents or Forward Purchasers may reasonably request. If at any time following issuance of an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus there occurred or occurs an event or development as a result of which such Issuer Free Writing Prospectus conflicted or conflicts with the information contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or included or includes an untrue statement of a material fact or omitted or omits to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances, prevailing at that subsequent time, not misleading, the Company will promptly notify the Sales Agents and Forward Purchasers to suspend the offering of Placement Securities during such period and the Company will, subject to Section 7(a) hereof, promptly amend or supplement such Issuer Free Writing Prospectus to eliminate or correct such conflict, untrue statement or omission.

(e) Blue Sky and Other Qualifications. The Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts, in cooperation with the Sales Agents and Forward Purchasers, to qualify the Placement Securities for offering and sale, or to obtain an exemption for the Placement Securities to be offered and sold, under the applicable securities laws of such states and other jurisdictions (domestic or foreign) as the Sales Agents and Forward Purchasers may designate and to maintain such qualifications and exemptions in effect for so long as

 

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required for the distribution of the Placement Securities (but in no event for less than one year from the date of this Agreement); provided, however, that the Company shall not be obligated to file any general consent to service of process or to qualify as a foreign corporation or as a dealer in securities in any jurisdiction in which it is not so qualified or to subject itself to taxation in respect of doing business in any jurisdiction in which it is not otherwise so subject. In each jurisdiction in which the Placement Securities have been so qualified or exempt, the Company will file such statements and reports as may be required by the laws of such jurisdiction to continue such qualification or exemption, as the case may be, in effect for so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Securities.

(f) Rule 158. The Company will timely file such reports pursuant to the Exchange Act as are necessary in order to make generally available to its securityholders as soon as practicable an earnings statement for the purposes of, and to provide to the Sales Agents and Forward Purchasers the benefits contemplated by, the last paragraph of Section 11(a) of the Securities Act.

(g) Use of Proceeds. The Company will use the net proceeds received by it from the sale of the Issuance Securities and any Confirmation Shares in the manner specified in the Prospectus under “Use of Proceeds.”

(h) Listing. The Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts to effect and maintain listing of the Common Stock, including the Placement Securities on, and satisfy the requirements of, the NYSE.

(i) Filings with the NYSE. The Company will timely file with the NYSE all material documents and notices required by the NYSE of companies that have or will issue securities that are traded on the NYSE.

(j) Reporting Requirements. The Company, during any period when the Prospectus is required to be delivered under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172), will file all documents required to be filed with the Commission pursuant to the Exchange Act within the time periods required by the Exchange Act.

(k) Notice of Other Sales. From the time the Company issues a Placement Notice until the settlement of sales of all Placement Securities remaining under such Placement Notice (as amended in the corresponding Acceptance, if applicable), the Company will not, without (i) giving the Current Sales Agent or Forward Purchaser at least three (3) Business Days’ prior written notice specifying the nature of the proposed sale and the date of such proposed sale and (ii) the Current Sales Agent or Forward Purchaser suspending activity under this program for such period of time as requested by the Company or as deemed appropriate by the Sales Agents or Forward Purchasers in light of the proposed sale, (A) offer, pledge, announce the intention to sell, sell, contract to sell, sell any option or contract to purchase, purchase any option or contract to sell, grant any option, right or warrant to purchase, or lend or otherwise transfer or dispose of, directly or indirectly, any Common Stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for or repayable with Common Stock, or file any registration statement under the Securities Act with respect to any of the foregoing (other than a shelf registration statement under Rule 415, a registration statement on Form S-8 or Form S-4 or a post-effective amendment

 

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to the Registration Statement) or (B) enter into any swap or other agreement or any transaction that transfers in whole or in part, directly or indirectly, any of the economic consequence of ownership of the Common Stock, or any securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for or repayable with Common Stock, whether any such swap or transaction described in clause (A) or (B) above is to be settled by delivery of Common Stock or such other securities, in cash or otherwise. The foregoing sentence shall not apply to (w) the Common Stock to be offered and sold through the Sales Agents or Forward Purchasers pursuant to this Agreement, any Confirmation or any Terms Agreement, (x) Common Stock issuable pursuant to the Company’s dividend reinvestment plan as it may be amended or replaced from time to time (y) the issuance, grant or sale of any equity incentive awards approved by the Board of Directors or the compensation committee thereof or the issuance or sale of Common Stock upon exercise thereof (including upon redemption of OP Units), and (z) the entry by the Company into any Confirmation.

(l) Change of Circumstances. The Company will, at any time during a fiscal quarter in which the Company intends to tender a Placement Notice or sell Placement Securities, advise the Sales Agents and Forward Purchasers promptly after it shall have received notice or obtained knowledge thereof, of any information or fact that would alter or affect in any material respect any opinion, certificate, letter or other document provided to the Sales Agents or Forward Purchasers pursuant to this Agreement, any Confirmation or any Terms Agreement.

(m) Due Diligence Cooperation. The Company will cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by the Sales Agents, Forward Purchasers or their respective counsel or agents in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including, without limitation, providing information and making available documents and senior officers, during regular business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, as any Sales Agent or Forward Purchaser may reasonably request.

(n) Disclosure of Sales. The Company will disclose in its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and in its annual report on Form 10-K the number of Placement Securities sold pursuant to this Agreement, any Confirmation and any Terms Agreement, the net proceeds to the Company and the compensation payable by the Company to the Sales Agents and Forward Purchasers with respect to all such sales of Placement Securities pursuant to this Agreement, any Confirmation and any Terms Agreement.

(o) Representation Dates; Certificate. On or prior to the date that the first Securities are sold pursuant to the terms of this Agreement or any Terms Agreement and:

(i) each time the Company:

(A) files the Prospectus relating to the Placement Securities or amends or supplements the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Securities by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker, or supplement but not by means of incorporation of documents by reference into the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Securities;

 

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(B) files an Annual Report on Form 10-K under the Exchange Act;

(C) files a Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q under the Exchange Act; or

(D) files a Current Report on Form 8-K containing amended financial information (other than an Earnings Announcement to “furnish” information pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K) under the Exchange Act; and

(ii) at any other time reasonably requested by the Sales Agents or Forward Purchasers (each such date of filing of one or more of the documents referred to in clauses (i)(A) through (D) and any time of request pursuant to this Section 7(o) shall be a “Representation Date”), the Company shall furnish the Sales Agents and Forward Purchasers with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit E within two (2) Trading Days of any Representation Date. The requirement to provide a certificate under this Section 7(o) shall be waived for any Representation Date occurring at a time at which no Placement Notice (as amended by the corresponding Acceptance, if applicable) is pending for any Sales Agent or Forward Purchaser, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of the date the Company delivers a Placement Notice hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Representation Date) and the next occurring Representation Date; provided, however, that such waiver shall not apply for any Representation Date on which the Company files its Annual Report on Form 10-K if a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit E, is reasonably requested by the Sales Agents or Forward Purchasers. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Placement Securities to or through any Sales Agent or Forward Purchaser following a Representation Date when the Company relied on such waiver and did not provide any such Sales Agent or Forward Purchaser with a certificate under this Section 7(o), then before the Company delivers the Placement Notice or the Sales Agents or Forward Purchaser (or its affiliate) sell any Placement Securities, the Company shall provide such Sales Agents and Forward Purchasers with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit E, dated the date of the Placement Notice.

(p) Legal Opinions. On or prior to the date that the first Placement Securities are sold pursuant to the terms of this Agreement, any Confirmation or any Terms Agreement, within two (2) Trading Days of each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate in the form attached hereto as Exhibit E for which no waiver is applicable or then in effect, the Company shall cause to be furnished to the Sales Agents and Forward Purchasers written opinions of (i) Latham & Watkins LLP, corporate and tax counsel to the Company and (ii) Venable LLP, Maryland counsel for the Company, or other counsel satisfactory to the Sales Agents and Forward Purchasers (collectively, “Company Counsel”), in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Sales Agents, Forward Purchasers and their respective counsels, dated the date that the opinions are required to be delivered, substantially similar to the form attached hereto as Exhibit D-1, Exhibit D-2, and Exhibit D-3, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or

 

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supplemented; provided, however, that in lieu of such opinions for subsequent Representation Dates, counsel may furnish the Sales Agents and Forward Purchasers with a letter to the effect that the Sales Agents and Forward Purchasers may rely on a prior opinion delivered under this Section 7(p) to the same extent as if it were dated the date of such letter (except that statements in such prior opinion shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented at such Representation Date).

(q) Comfort Letters. On or prior to the date that the first Placement Securities are sold pursuant to the terms of this Agreement, any Confirmation or any Terms Agreement, within two (2) Trading Days of each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate in the form attached her